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英美概况Chapter Seven

ChapterⅦ Reconstruction and the Birth of US Imperialism
Ⅰ Reconstruction in the South
1 Necessity----With the end of the Civil War, the south was in shambles (1) More than physical damage, the whole basis of the South’s economic life also lay in ruins. (2) With the freeing of slaves, the plantation system had completely broken down, (3) The south’s social system was in a state of collapse. 2 Procedures Stage 1 ---- Lincoln’s moderate Reconstruction (1) Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction ① in 1863 ② known as the “10 percent plan” ③ ten percent of the voters in any state had taken the oath of loyalty, they could form their own government and would be entitled to the recognition of their state by the President of the US. ④ By 1866, all of the southern states had conformed to the terms of the plan and were ready to join the Union again. (2) Black Codes ① the southern legislatures undertook to deal with the “Negro problem” ② enacted laws imposing severe restriction on the rights of freedom ③ excited great opposition in the North ④ were attacked as attempt to restore slavery under another name Stage 2 ---- Radical Reconstruction (1) Beginning Time: 1867 Document: the Reconstruction Acts a. five military districts b. under the control of a northern army officer c. preserve order & enforce martial law d. form new state government e. give blacks right to vote f. temporarily deprive the former Confederate leaders of the right to vote (2) Process Military Reconstruction ---- divided all the former Confederate states, except Tennessee, into five military districts Presidential Reconstruction ---- President had no right to remove Cabinet members or army officers by two acts ---- Johnson was the first US President who faced impeachment proceedings Congressional Reconstruction ---- carpetbaggers Some northerners came to the south who were called “carpetbaggers”, because they were said to have brought all their belongings to the South in a small, cheap suitcase made out of a carpetlike material and used by travelers in those days

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---- scalawags Some southerners supported Radical Reconstruction and became members of the Republican Party. They were considered as traitors by the Democrats, and came to be called “scalawags”. ---- Ku Klux Klan ①Ku Klux Klan was a secret society whose members bitterly resented the black political power and reacted with a campaign of terror. ②Its terrorist activities included whipping, tar-and feathering, castration, lynching, and other violence against the recently enfranchised blacks. ③The aim of the Klan was to drive blacks out of politics, end Reconstruction and restore white supremacy. ④Because of the racial attacks against the Negro by the whites, a permanent pattern of mistrust and misunderstanding developed between the Negroes and the whites in the South. (3) Ending Time: 1877 President: Rutherford B. Hays. Sign: the Northern troops withdrew from the south Results: The Negroes civil rights were restricted again. The south never had a great industrial boom.

Ⅱ Becoming a Great Industrial Power
1 Development of the West 1848 ---- Gold Rush, flourishing of California 18th & 19th centuries ---- opening the west 1862 ---- Homestead Act, flourishing of the West 2 Development of Railroads 1869, the first American transcontinental railroad completed. 1890, the mileage being the largest in the world. 3 Development of Science 1860s-1890s, 50,000 patents Bell, the telephone Marconi, the wireless Edison, stock ticker, phonograph, incandescent lamp lead to the development of nationwide communication, changed the lifestyle of the American people and brought certain essential benefits to American industries 4 Development of Industry Mesabi, the greatest iron ore 1859, 1st oil well drilled in Pennsylvania 1870’s, petroleum exporting 1860, 4th in the world 1894, 1st in the world 5 Concentration of capital the Vanderbilts (railway)

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the Rockefellers (oil) the Morgans (steel) the Fords (automobiles) 6 Workers’ Movement ① 1877, Pennsylvania Railway Workers’ Strike ---- The Pennsylvania railway workers’ strike of 1877 was the first large-scale workers’ struggle in the US history. ② May 1, 1886, International Labor Day ---- On May 1, 1886, a national strike occurred in support of the eight-hour workday in Chicago. ---- The Second International meeting was held at Paris in 1889. The meeting adopted a resolution designation May 1 as International Labor Day. ③ March 8, 1909, International Working Women’s Day ---- On March 8, 1909, women workers in Chicago launched a big struggle for freedom and equal rights with men. Their efforts won the recognition of the Second International Congress of women socialists which decided in 1910 that March 8 each year to be observed as International Working Women’s Day.

Ⅲ Becoming an Imperialist Power
1 US﹣Spanish War Time: 1898 Results: won by the US, the peace treaty gave Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the US Cuba became independent, but remained subject to close American control Significance: the first imperialist war a new stage in which the US transformed into an imperialist power a beginning in world wide US aggression 2 “Big Stick” Policy In 1901, wielding the “Big Stick” in the name of the “Monroe Doctrine” Theodore Roosevelt carried out the policy of aggression in Latin America and brought most of the Caribbean countries under US control. He also got the control of Panama Canal. 3 “Open Door” Policy ① In Sino-American relations, Theodore Roosevelt pushed the so-called “Open Door” Policy which demanded that all the imperialist powers should enjoy equal chance in China as free as other aggressors. ② In 1900, America joined the Eight-Power Alliance to suppress the anti-imperialist Boxers Movement of the Chinese people. They forced Qing government sigh another unequal treaty in 1901.

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