Unit 4 Reading
The first underground in the world
1. When was the first underground system opened? In 1863. 2. What did Charles Holden do?
He designed the most famous of the
new stations constructed between 1918
3. Why was the Victoria Line important?
It was important because it linked with other lines at almost every station, helping make the system more userfriendly.
Read again and answer.
1. Why was an underground system first
developed in London?
Most railway tracks did not go into the London city centre, so buses, trams, cabs and carriages were required. The number of vehicles on the road caused unbelievable traffic.
2. What was the London Underground like in 1863? The tunnels were just beneath he surface of the ground. The carriages did not have windows and were pulled by steam engines through the narrow tunnels.
3. What did Charles Yerkes do to improve
the underground system? He obtained ownership of the many different lines and set up the Underground Electric Railways Company of London.
4. What unusual uses did the tube have
during World War Ⅱ?
During World War Ⅱ, the tube was
used as a bomb shelter, an airplane factory, a centre for directing the defence against air attacks and meeting rooms for the government administration.
5. What happened to the London
Underground after World WarⅡ?
After World WarⅡ, the
underground system was enlarged
and more lines were added because
more people travelled on the
6. What does it mean when the brochure says that the underground system is
It means it is very convenient for
passengers to go to different places in
the city from any station.
The following years indicate the
important stages in the development
of the London Underground. Find the information to match the years.
Event approved to be built.
1854 An underground railway was 1863
The first tunnels were opened.
1868 The next section of the underground
system was opened.
1884 Two companies linked up to provide
underground service in the middle of the city. The first railway tunnel under the River Thames was dug.
1890 The first electric underground railway was opened. 1933 The London Passenger Transport Board was created.
1918— More new stations were 1938 constructed.
The Jubilee Line was opened.
How many parts can the passage be divided into? What does each part focus on? Part Part 1 Part 2 Para (s) Main idea _________ Reasons why the first underground in the world was developed. Developments of the first _____________ underground system before the Second World War uses of the first Some unusual ___________ underground system during the Second World War Expansion and popularity _________ _________ of the first underground system.
2-4 Paras ___
5 Para __
6-7 Paras ____
Reading a tourist brochure What are the main features of a brochure? 1. Dates/years in chronological order 2. Sometimes persons who have made great contributions 3. Some historical events that have influences
1. have the distinction of 因…而优秀，卓越 L2 2. during the first half of the 19th century L3-4 3. traffic jam 交通阻塞 4. lead to L8 L9 L15 L21
5. give approval to 赞成，同意 L11 6. a large amount of money 8. link up 连接，联合 7. pull through 渡过危机（难关），恢复健康 L18 9. at regular intervals 每隔一段 L24
10. accelerate the pace of 加快步伐 L28 11. far from 12. set up 14. function as 作为 15. be used as 17. in honor of 用作 L44 L45 L32 L35
13. under the authority of 在…掌管下 L39
16. be linked with 18. huge numbers of
19. why not do sth
20. permit sb. to do sth.
1. However, most trains to London only
went to the outer city limits, because
building railway tracks into the city
would have caused damaged many old
buildings. (P50 L4-6)
句子结构分析：在这个复合句中，most trains to London only went to the outer city limits是主句；because building railway tracks into the city would have damaged many old buildings是原因状语 从句。to London和to the outer city都为 介词短语作定语，分别修饰trains和 railway tracks。
2. Unfortunately, the number of vehicles on the road caused unbelievable traffic jams, and the roads became so busy that no one could travel anywhere. (P50 L7-9)
roads became so busy 是主句, that no
one could travel anywhere是结果状语从
3. Travelling on these lines was not
convenient, though, as each line was
possessed by a different company, and
many were very far from each other.
1) 句子结构分析：Travelling on these lines was not convenient, though为主句， as each line was possessed by a different company, and many were very far from each other为原因状语从句；状语从句又 为由and连接的两个并列句。
2) 语言知识分析： Travelling on these lines was inconvenient, though意为“然而，搭乘这些线路很不方 便”，句子中的though为副词，意为“可 是，不过，然而”，常被置于句中或句末。
4. Having seen the situation, a wealthy
American businessman, Charles Yerkes,
undertook improving the system in 1902 by obtaining ownership of the many different lines and setting up the Underground Electric Railways Company of London. (P51 L33-36)
1)句子结构分析：此句虽然很长，但实 际上是一个简单句。主干为a wealthy American businessman undertook improving the system。句首的Having seen the situation为V-ing短语作状语； Charles Yerkes为a wealthy American businessman的同位语；后面的by obtaining ownership ...是方式状语。
Having seen the situation意为“看到这种
5. A new line was used as an underground airplane factory, an underground station was used as a centre for directing the defence against air attacks, and the station nearest the Prime Minister’s
house was used by the Prime Minister as
meeting rooms for the administration of
government. (P51 L45-48)
一个分句为A new line was used as an
underground airplane factory；第二个
分句为an underground station was used
as a centre for directing the defence
against air attacks ；
第三个分句为: the station nearest
the Prime Minister’s house was
used by the Prime Minister as
meeting rooms for the government