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M7U4 reading


Unit 4 Reading

The first underground in the world

1. When was the first underground system opened? In 1863. 2. What did Charles Holden do?

He designed the most famous of the
new stations constructed between 1918

and 1938.

3. Why was the Victoria Line important?
It was important because it linked with other lines at almost every station, helping make the system more userfriendly.

Read again and answer.
1. Why was an underground system first

developed in London?
Most railway tracks did not go into the London city centre, so buses, trams, cabs and carriages were required. The number of vehicles on the road caused unbelievable traffic.

2. What was the London Underground like in 1863? The tunnels were just beneath he surface of the ground. The carriages did not have windows and were pulled by steam engines through the narrow tunnels.

3. What did Charles Yerkes do to improve
the underground system? He obtained ownership of the many different lines and set up the Underground Electric Railways Company of London.

4. What unusual uses did the tube have
during World War Ⅱ?

During World War Ⅱ, the tube was
used as a bomb shelter, an airplane factory, a centre for directing the defence against air attacks and meeting rooms for the government administration.

5. What happened to the London

Underground after World WarⅡ?
After World WarⅡ, the

underground system was enlarged
and more lines were added because

more people travelled on the
underground.

6. What does it mean when the brochure says that the underground system is

user-friendly?
It means it is very convenient for

passengers to go to different places in
the city from any station.

The following years indicate the

important stages in the development
of the London Underground. Find the information to match the years.

Date

Event approved to be built.

1854 An underground railway was 1863

The first tunnels were opened.

1868 The next section of the underground
system was opened.

1884 Two companies linked up to provide
underground service in the middle of the city. The first railway tunnel under the River Thames was dug.

1890 The first electric underground railway was opened. 1933 The London Passenger Transport Board was created.

1918— More new stations were 1938 constructed.

1979

The Jubilee Line was opened.

How many parts can the passage be divided into? What does each part focus on? Part Part 1 Part 2 Para (s) Main idea _________ Reasons why the first underground in the world was developed. Developments of the first _____________ underground system before the Second World War uses of the first Some unusual ___________ underground system during the Second World War Expansion and popularity _________ _________ of the first underground system.

1 Para__
2-4 Paras ___

Part 3

5 Para __

Part 4

6-7 Paras ____

Reading a tourist brochure What are the main features of a brochure? 1. Dates/years in chronological order 2. Sometimes persons who have made great contributions 3. Some historical events that have influences

Language points
1. have the distinction of 因…而优秀,卓越 L2 2. during the first half of the 19th century L3-4 3. traffic jam 交通阻塞 4. lead to L8 L9 L15 L21

5. give approval to 赞成,同意 L11 6. a large amount of money 8. link up 连接,联合 7. pull through 渡过危机(难关),恢复健康 L18 9. at regular intervals 每隔一段 L24

10. accelerate the pace of 加快步伐 L28 11. far from 12. set up 14. function as 作为 15. be used as 17. in honor of 用作 L44 L45 L32 L35

13. under the authority of 在…掌管下 L39

16. be linked with 18. huge numbers of
19. why not do sth

L51
L53

L55
L59

20. permit sb. to do sth.

L60

难句解析
1. However, most trains to London only
went to the outer city limits, because

building railway tracks into the city
would have caused damaged many old

buildings. (P50 L4-6)

句子结构分析:在这个复合句中,most trains to London only went to the outer city limits是主句;because building railway tracks into the city would have damaged many old buildings是原因状语 从句。to London和to the outer city都为 介词短语作定语,分别修饰trains和 railway tracks。

2. Unfortunately, the number of vehicles on the road caused unbelievable traffic jams, and the roads became so busy that no one could travel anywhere. (P50 L7-9)

句子结构分析:此句为and连接起来
的并列句。第一个分句为一个简单句;

第二个分句为结果状语主从复合句, the
roads became so busy 是主句, that no

one could travel anywhere是结果状语从
句。

3. Travelling on these lines was not

convenient, though, as each line was
possessed by a different company, and

many were very far from each other.
(P50 L31-32)

1) 句子结构分析:Travelling on these lines was not convenient, though为主句, as each line was possessed by a different company, and many were very far from each other为原因状语从句;状语从句又 为由and连接的两个并列句。

2) 语言知识分析: Travelling on these lines was inconvenient, though意为“然而,搭乘这些线路很不方 便”,句子中的though为副词,意为“可 是,不过,然而”,常被置于句中或句末。

4. Having seen the situation, a wealthy

American businessman, Charles Yerkes,
undertook improving the system in 1902 by obtaining ownership of the many different lines and setting up the Underground Electric Railways Company of London. (P51 L33-36)

1)句子结构分析:此句虽然很长,但实 际上是一个简单句。主干为a wealthy American businessman undertook improving the system。句首的Having seen the situation为V-ing短语作状语; Charles Yerkes为a wealthy American businessman的同位语;后面的by obtaining ownership ...是方式状语。

2) 语言知识分析:
Having seen the situation意为“看到这种

情况”。一般说来,V-ing形式作状语时,
逻辑主语为主句的主语,用完成式表示 其动作发生在主句谓语动词的动作之前。

5. A new line was used as an underground airplane factory, an underground station was used as a centre for directing the defence against air attacks, and the station nearest the Prime Minister’s

house was used by the Prime Minister as
meeting rooms for the administration of

government. (P51 L45-48)

句子结构分析:

此句为and连接起来的三个并列句。第
一个分句为A new line was used as an

underground airplane factory;第二个
分句为an underground station was used

as a centre for directing the defence
against air attacks ;

第三个分句为: the station nearest

the Prime Minister’s house was
used by the Prime Minister as

meeting rooms for the government
administration。


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