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文献、资料题目: Zero Inventory Approach 文献、资料来源: The IUP Journal of Supply
Chain Management

文献、资料发表(出版)日期: 院 (部): 管理工程学院 专 班 姓 学 业:


级: 工业 112 名: 张金丰 号:

指导教师: 孔海花 翻译日期: 2015.06.14


外文文献: Zero Inventory Approach
Managing optimal inventory in the supply chain is critical for an enterprise. The ability to increase inventory turns and the use of best inventory practices will reduce inventory costs across the supply chain. Moving towards zero inventory will result management in the business process. Inventory Optimization easily using inventory optimization software. With technology, inventory can be updated in real human involvement. Companies have processes and lower their cost Introduction With supply chain planning and latest software, companies are managing their inventory in the best possible manner, keeping inventory holdings to the minimum without sacrificing the customer service needs. The zero inventory concept has been around since the 1980s. It tries to reduce inventory to a minimum and enhances profit margins by reducing the need for warehousing and expenses related to it.The concept of a supply chain is to have items in effective inventory

Solutions can be implemented

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

time without product movement, scanning or

to adopt best practices to optimize operational

structure through inventory strategies.

flowing from one stage of supply to the next, both within the business and outside, in a seamless fashion. Any stock in the system is caused by either delay between the processes (demand, distribution, transfer, recording and production) or by the variation in the flow. Eliminating/reducing stock can be achieved by: linking processes, making the same throughput rate on processes, locating processes near each other and coordinating flows. Recent advanced software has made zero inventory strategy executable. "Inventory optimization is an emerging practical approach to balancing investment and service-level goals over a very large assortment of Stock-Keeping Units (SKUS). In contrast to traditional ‘one-at-a-time’ marginal stock level setting, inventory optimization simultaneously determines all SKU stock levels to fulfill total service and investment constraints or objectives". Inventory optimization techniques provide a new logic to drive the system with information systems. To effectively manage inventory, businesses must also optimize the


costs of buying, holding, producing, moving and selling inventory. The objective of inventory optimization is to sustain minimal levels of inventory while providing the maximum possible levels of service. Supply Chain Design and Optimization (SCDO) is an inventory optimization solution which helps companies satisfy customer demands while balancing limitations on supply and the need for operational efficiency. Inventory optimization focuses on modeling uncertainty and variability and minimizing the risks they impose on the supply chain. Inventory optimization can help resolve total supply chain cost options like: ? In-house manufacturing vs. contract manufacturing; ? Domestic vs. off shore; ? New supplier's cost vs. current suppliers' cost. Companies can benefit from inventory optimization, provided they control their supply chain processes and the complexity of supply chain. In case the supply chain is very

complex, besides inventory optimization, network design has to be used to reap the benefits fully. This paper covers various inventory models that are available technologies like Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and and then describes the

networking used for the

optimization of inventory. The paper also describes the software solutions available for achieving the same. It concludes by giving a few examples where inventory optimization has been successfully implemented. Inventory Models Hexagon Model The hexagon model was developed due to the need to structure day-to-day work, reduce headcount and other inventory costs and improve customer satisfaction.In the first phase, operation strategies were established in alignment with inte-rnal customers. Later, continuous improvement plans and business continuity pl-ans were added. The five strategies used were: forecasting future consumption,setting financial targets to minimize inventory costs, preparing daily reports to monitor inventory operational performance,studying critical success indicators to track the accomplishments, to form inventory strategic objectives and inventor-y health and operating strategies. The hexagon model is a combination of two triangular structures (Figure 1).


The upper triangle focuses on the soft management of human resources, customer orientation and supplier relations; the lower focuses on the execution of inventory plans with their success criteria, continuous improvement methodology and business continuity plans. The inventory indicators are: total inventory value, availability of spares, days of

inventory, cost of inventory, cost saving and cash saving output expen-diture and quality improvement. The hexagon model combines the elements of the people involved in managing inventory with operational excellence (Figur2). Managing inventory with operational excellence was achieved by reducing the number of employees in the material department, changing the mix of people skills such as introducing engineering into the department structure and reducing the cost of ownership of the material department to the operation that it supports. Normally, this is implemented with reduction in headcount of material department,

having less people with engineering skills in the department. Operation results include, improvement in raw material supply line quality indicators, competitive days of inventory and improved and stabilized spares availability. And the financial results include, increase in cost savings and reduced cost of inventory. It can be established by outsourcing some of the

inventory functions as required. The level of efficiency of the inventory managed can be measured to a specific risk level, changing requirements or changes in the environment. Just-In-Time (JIT) Just-in-time (JIT) inventory system is a concept developed by the Japanese, wherein, the suppliers deliver the materials to the factory JIT for their processing, eliminating the need for storage and retrieval. The rate of output and the rate of supply of inputs are synchronized, to manage a zero inventory. The main benefits of JIT are: set up times are significantly reduced in the factory, the

flow of goods from warehouse to shelves improves, employees who possess multiple skills are utilized more efficiently, better consistency of scheduling and consistency of employee work hours, increased emphasis on supplier relationships and continuous round the clock supplies keeping workers productive and businesses focused on turnover. And though a JIT system might even be a necessity, given the inventory demands of certain business types, its many advantages are realized only when some significant risks like


delays in movement of goods over long distances are mitigated. Vendor-Managed Inventory (VMI) Vendor-Managed Inventory (VMI) is a planning and management system in which the vendor is responsible for maintaining the customer’s inventory levels. VMI is defined as a process or mechanism where the supplier creates the purchase orders based on the demand information. VMI is a combination of e-commerce, software and people. It has resulted in the dramatic reduction of inventory across the supply chain. VMI is categorized in the real world as collaboration, automation and cost transference. The main objectives of VMI are better, cheaper and faster transactions. In order to establish the VMI process,management commitment,data synchronization,setting up agreements,data exchange, ordering, invoice matching and measurement have to be undertaken.The benefits of VMI to an organization are reduction in inventory besides reduction of stock-outs and increase in customer satisfaction. Accurate information which is required for optimizing the supply chain is facilitated by efficient transfer of information. The concept of VMI would be successful only when there is trust between the organization and its suppliers as all the demand information is available to the suppliers which can be revealed to the competitors. VMI optimizes inventory in supply chain and reduces stock-outs by proper planning and centralized forecasting. Consignment Model Consignment inventory model is an extension of VMI where the vendor places inventory at the customer’s location while retaining ownership of the inventory.The consignment inventory model works best in the case of new and unproven products where there is a high degree of demand uncertainty, highly expensive products and service parts for critical equipment. The types of consignment inventory ownership transfer models are: pay as sold during a pre-defined period, ownership changes after a pre-defined period, and order to order consignment. The issues that the VMI and consignment inventory model encounter are cost of developing VMI system, invoicing problems, cash flow problems, Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) problems and obsolete stock. Enabling Practices


The decision makers have to make prudent decisions on future course of action of a project relating to the following variables: Forecasting and Inventory Management,Inventory Management practices,Inventory Planning,Optimal purchase, Multichannel Inventory, Moving towards zero inventory. To improve inventory management for better forecasting, the 14 best practices that will most likely benefit business the most are: ?Synchronize promotions; ?Revamp the organizational structure; ?Take a longer view of item planning; ?Enforce vendor compliance; ?Track key inventory metrics; ?Select the right systems; ?Master the art of master scheduling; ?Adhere to exception reporting; ?Identify lost demands; ?Plan by assortment; ?Track inbound receipts; ?Create coverage reports; ?Balance under stock/overstock; and ?Optimize SKUs. This will leverage the retailer’s ability to buy larger quantities across all channels while buying only what is required for a specified period in order to manage risk in a better way. In most multichannel companies, inventory is the largest asset on the balance sheet, which means that their profitability will be determined to a large degree by the way they plan, forecast, and manage inventory (Curt Barry, 2007). They can follow some steps like creating a strategy, integrating planning and forecasting, equipping with the best-laid plans and building strong vendor relationships and effective liquidation. Moving Towards Zero Inventory At the fore is the development and widespread adoption of nimble, sophisticated software systems such as Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II), Enterprise Resource Planning


(ERP), and Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS) systems, as well as dedicated supply chain management software systems. These systems offer manufacturers greater functionality. To implement ‘Zero Stock’ system, companies need to have a good information system to handle customer orders, sub-contractor orders, product inventory and all issues related to production. If the company has no IT infrastructure, it will need to build it from the scratch. A good information system can help managers to get accurate data and make strategic decisions. IT infrastructure is not a cost, but an investment. A company can use RFID method, network inventory and other software tools for inventory optimization. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) RFID is an automatic identification method, which relies on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. RFID use in enterprise supply chain management increases the efficiency of inventory tracking and management. RFID application develops asset utilization by tracking reusable assets and provides visibility, improves quality control by tagging raw material, work-in-progress, and finished goods inventory, improves production execution and supply chain performance by providing accurate, timely and detailed information to enterprise resource planning and manufacturing execution system. The status of inventory can be obtained automatically by using RFID. There are many benefits of using RFID such as reduced inventory, reduced time, reduced errors, accessibility increase, high security, etc. Network Inventory A Network Inventory Management System (NIMS) tracks movement of items across the system and thus can locate malfunctioning equipment/process and provide information

required to diagnose and correct problem areas. It also determines where capacity is to be added, calculates impact of market conditions, assesses impact of new products and the impact of a new customer. NIMS is very important when the complexity of a supply chain is high. It determines the manufacturing and distribution strategies for the future. It should take into consideration production, location, inventory and transportation. The NIMS software, including asset configuration information and change management, is an essential component of robust network management architecture.NIMS provide


information that administrators can use to improve network management performance and help develop effective network asset control processes. A network inventory solution manages network resource information for multiple network technologies as well as multiple vendors in one common accurate database. It is an extremely useful tool for improving several operation processes, such as resource trouble management, service assurance, network planning and provisioning, field maintenance and spare parts management. The NIMS software, including asset configuration information and change management, is an essential component of strong network management architecture. In addition, software tools that provide planning, design and life cycle management for network assets should prominently appear on enterprise radar screens. Inventory Optimization Software i2 Inventory Optimization i2 solutions enable customers to realize top and bottom-line benefits through the use of superior inventory management practices. i2 Inventory Optimization can help companies monitor, manage, and optimize strategies to decide—what to make, what to buy and from whom, what inventories to carry, where, in what form and how much—across the supply chain. It enables customers to learn and continuously improve inventory management policies and processes, strategic analysis and optimization. Product-oriented industry can install i2 Inventory Optimization and develop supply chain. Through this, the company can reduce inventory levels and overall logistics costs. It can also get higher service level performance, greater customer satisfaction, improved asset utilization, accelerated inventory turns, better product availability, reduced risk, and more precise and comprehensive supply chain visibility. Oracle Inventory Optimization Oracle Inventory Optimization considers the demand, supply, constraints and variability in extended supply chain to optimize strategic inventory investment decisions. It allows retailers to provide higher service levels to customers at a lower total cost. Oracle Inventory Optimization is part of the Oracle e-Business Suite, an integrated set of applications that are engineered to work together.Oracle Inventory Optimization provides solutions when demand


and supply are in ambiguity. It provides graphic representation of the plan. It calculates cost and risk. MRO Software MRO Software (now a part of IBM's Tivoli software business) announced a marketing alliance with inventory optimization specialists Xtivity to enhance the inventory management solutions for MRO Software customers. Inventory Optimizer (XIO) service as an extension of its asset solutions. Structured Query Language (SQL) Successful implementation of an inventory optimization solution requires significant effort and can pose certain risks to companies implementing such solutions. Structured service offering of

MRO offers Xtivity's and service management

Query Language (SQL) can be used on a common ERP platform. An optimal inventory policy can be determined by using it. Along with it, inventory levels, projected backlogs and their other metrics such as projected

confidence bands can also be calculated. The

only drawback of this method is that it may not be possible to obtain quick real-time results because of architectural and algorithmic complexity. However, potential scenarios can be analyzed in anticipation of results stored prior to user requests.

Some Examples Toyota’s Practice in India Toyota, a quality conscious company working towards zero inventory has selected Mitsui and Transport Corporation of India Ltd. (TCI) for their entire encompassing planning, transportation, warehousing, distribution logistic solutions

and MIS and related

documentation. Infrastructure is a bottleneck that continues to dog economic growth in India. Transystem renders services like procurement, consolidation and transportation of original equipment manufacturer's parts, through milk run operations from various suppliers all over India on a JIT basis, transportation of Complete Built-up Units (CBU) from plant to all dealers in the country and operation of CBU yards, coordination and transportation of Knock Down (KD) parts from port of entry to manufacturing plant, transportation of aftermarket parts to dealers by road and air to Toyota Kirloskar Motors Pvt. Ltd. Wal-Mart


Wal-Mart is the largest retailer in the United States, with an estimated 20% of the retail grocery and consumables business, as well as the largest toy seller in the US, with an

estimated 22% share of the toy market. Wal-Mart also operates in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Japan, Mexico, Puerto Rico and UK. Wal-Mart keeps close track of the inventories by extensively adopting vendor-managed inventory to streamline the flow of goods from manufacturer to the store shelf. This results in more turns and therefore fewer inventories. Wal-Mart is an early adopter of RFID to monitor the movement of stocks in different stages of supply chain. The company keeps tabs on all of its merchandize by outfitting its products with RFID. Wal-Mart has indicated recently that it is moving towards the aggressive theoretical zero inventory model. Chordus Inc. Chordus Inc. has the largest division of office furniture in USA. It has advanced logistics and a model of zero inventory. It has Internet-based system for distribution network with real-time updates and low costs. Chordus determined that only SAP R/3 could accommodate this cutting-edge operational model for its network of 150 dealer-owned franchises in 44 states supported by five nationwide Distribution Centers (DCs) and a fleet of 65 delivery trucks. Small Scale Cycle Industry Around Ludhiana In and around Ludhiana, there are many small bicycle units, which are not organized. They have a sharp focus on financial and raw material management enjoying a low employee turnover. They have been practicing zero inventory models which became popular in Japan only much later. Raw material is brought into the unit in the morning, processed during the day and by evening the finished product is passed on to the next unit. Thus, the chain continues till the ultimate finished product is manufactured. In this way, the bicycles

used to be produced in Ludhiana at half the production cost of TI Cycles. Even the large manufacturers of cycles, like Hero cycles, Atlas cycles and Avon cycles are reported to maintain only one week's inventory. Conclusion Inventory managers are faced with high service-level requirements and many SKUs


appreciate the complexity of inventory optimization, as well as the explicit control that is needed over total investment in warehousing, moving and logistics. Inventory optimization can provide both an enormous performance improvement for the supply chain and ongoing continuous improvements over competitors. The company achieves the stability needed to

have enough stock to meet unpredictable demands without wasteful allocation of capital. Having the right amount of stock in the right place at the right time improves customer satisfaction, market share and bottom line. Certainly, the organizations that are able to take inventory optimization to the enterprise level will reap greater benefits. Zero inventory may be wishful thinking, but embracing new technologies and processes to manage one's

inventory more efficiently could move one much closer to that ideal.

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对于一个企业来说,在供应链中优化库存管理是至关重要的。增大库存周转和使用 最佳库存方法将会减少供应链中的库存成本。以零库存为目标将促进业务流程中有效的 库存管理。库存优化方案可以运用库存优化软件很方便的实施。运用 RIDF 技术,库存 可以在没有产品移动、扫描以及人员参与的情况下实时更新。公司必须通过库存策略采 取最佳方法去优化操作流程和降低成本结构。 引言 运用供应链规划和最新的软件,企业用尽可能最好的方式管理库存,在不牺牲顾客 服务需求的条件下保持库存量最低。零库存思想产生于上世纪80年代。它试图将库存降 到最低并通过减少需要仓储及相关费用来提高利润。供应链的概念是,项目从一个阶段 流向另一个阶段,在业务流程内外,无间隙融合。系统中的任何库存都是由流程之间的 延迟(需求、分配、转接、记录和生产)或者流量的变更引起的。消除/减少库存可用下 列方法实现:使各流程相链接,流程间使用相同的吞吐量,流程相互定位并协调流动。 最近的先进软件使零库存策略得以执行。 在大品种库存单位(型号)下,库存优化是一个新兴的切实可行的平衡投资和服务 水平目标的方法。对比传统的“一次一个”边际库存水平设置,库存优化,同时决定所 有的 SKU 的库存水平和实现整个服务和投资的限制或目标。 库存优化系统提供了一个新的逻辑, 用信息系统来驱动系统。 为了有效的管理库存, 企业也必须优化购买成本,持有成本,运输成本和销售成本。 库存优化的目的是维持最低的库存水平,同时提供最大可能的服务水平。供应链设 计和优化是一个库存优化方案,它能帮助公司满足顾客需求的同时平衡供给和运行效率 之间的限制。库存优化致力于对在供应链中所应用的风险的不确定性,变异性和减少风 险进行建模。 库存优化能帮助解决整体供应链成本的方案,例如: ? 内部生产和外包生产 ? 国内和国外的 ? 新供应商成本和原有供应商成本 只要企业可以控制自己的供应链流程和供应链复杂性研究,企业就可以受益于库存 优化。如果供应链非常复杂,除了库存优化,网络设计也被用来获取利润。本论文介绍

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了有效的多库存模型, RFID 技术和库存优化网络技术。 本论文也介绍了可以达到同样目 的的、可行的软件解决方案。论文以一些成功实施的库存优化例子结束。 库存模型 六边形模型 六边形模型是由于需要组织一天的日常工作,减少员工人数和其他库存成本和提高 顾客满意度而开发的。在第一阶段,经营策略是保持与内部客户一致。后来,添加了持 续改进计划和业务连续性计划。运用的五大战略是:预测未来的消费;设置财务目标, 以最大限度的降低库存;准备每日报告监察库存经营业绩;研究关键成功指标以追踪所 取得的成就;形成库存战略目标和库存健康及经营策略。六边形模型是两个三角形结构 的组合。 上三角侧重于人力资源,客户管理取向和供应商关系这些软资源的管理;下三角集 中于执行有成功准则的库存计划,连续改进方法和业务连续性计划。 库存指标是:总存货价值,备件供应,日库存,库存成本,节约成本及现金节省输 出支出和质量改进。六边形模型结合了参与卓越经营库存管理人员的因素。 卓越经营库存管理是通过减少材料部门的员工数量,改变人的技能组合,如向部门 结构中引进工程,减少材料部门拥有独立操作所有权的成本。 通常,这是与材料部门人员的减少一起实施的,使更少的人掌握工程技术。上述操 作结果是,原材料供应线质量指标的改善,日存货的竞争和备件的改善与稳定。财务结 果是,成本节约增加,库存成本减少。卓越经营库存管理根据一些库存功能需要建立外 包政策。库存管理有效性的水平可以衡量一个特定风险水平,需求的改变或是环境的变 化。 准时制生产 准时库存系统概念产生于日本,其中,供应商向工厂生产流程准时提供材料以消除 存储和检索的需要。为了零库存管理,输出速率和供应的投入率应是同步的。 准时制生产的好处是,工厂中的时间浪费大大减少,商品从仓库到货架的流通得到 改善,拥有多技能的员工被更有效的利用,在时间安排和员工工作时间上有更好的一致 性,供应商关系得以强调,连续不间断的全天候的物资供应使员工工作更有效率和企业 在营业额上得以积累。 尽管一个 JIT 系统甚至可能是必要的,给出了某些业务类型的库存要求,但是其优 点是只有当一些重要的风险如由于长距离运输而延误的风险能够减轻时才能体现。
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供应商管理库存 供应商管理库存是供应商对维护客户的库存水平负责的规划和管理系统。VMI 定义 为供应商基于需求信息创建的采购订单的一种过程或机制。VMI 是集电子商务,软件, 人的因素为一体。它使整个供应链中的库存大幅度降低。VMI 在现实世界中分为协作, 自动化和成本转移。 VMI 的主要目标是更好,更廉价和更快的交易。为了建立 VMI 流程,管理承诺, 数据同步,设定协议,数据交换,订货,发票匹配,和测量是必要环节。对一个公司来 说,VMI 的好处除了可以减少缺货,增加客户满意度,还可以降低库存。优化供应链所 需求的准确信息通过信息的有效传输可以方便的获得。VMI 理念,只有在企业和其供应 商之间相互信任,比如所有的可以透漏给竞争对手的需求信息对供应商都是可获得的, 才能获得成功。VMI 通过合适的计划和集中预测来优化供应链中的库存和减少缺货。 寄售模式 寄售库存模式是在供应商将库存清单存放在客户那里同时保留库存清单的所有权的 情况下的 VMI 的一个延伸。在新的和未经证实的产品的情况下寄售库存模型效果最好, 这种情况需求不确定性程度高,产品非常昂贵,有关键设备的维修零件。寄售库存的所 有权类型传输模式是:支付和销售在一个预定义时间内,预定义时间后所有权变更,安 排订购货物。 VMI 和寄售库存模式所遭遇的问题是以开发 VMI 系统,发票问题,现金流问题, 电子数据交换问题和陈旧存货为代价的。 Enabling Practices 决策者必须对今后的和下列变量相关的项目行动方针做出谨慎的决策:预测和库存 管理,库存管理方法,库存计划,最佳采购,多通道库存,实现零库存。 为了改善库存管理去更好的预测,十四个对业务最有利的最佳实践是: ? 同步提升; ? 过程重组; ? 制定较长的项目规划; ? 实施供应商承诺; ? 追踪关键库存指标; ? 选择合适的系统; ? 掌握主要时序安排的技术;
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? 坚持异常报告; ? 确认丢失的需求; ? 进行分类计划; ? 追踪本地进款; ? 建立覆盖报告; ? 平衡库存和积压; ? 优化 SKUs; 这将利用零售商的购买能力,为了更好的管理风险,通过各种渠道都买在制定时期 所需求的。在大多数多渠道公司,库存占有资产负债表上最大的份量,这就意味着他们 的盈利在很大程度上将会取决于他们的规划,预测,和库存管理的方法。他们可以按照 一些步骤,创建一个策略,综合规划和预测,配备最完美的计划,并建立强有力的供应 商关系和有效的清算。 零库存目标 首先是发展和广泛采用灵活的,先进的如制造资源计划(MRPII),企业资源规划 (ERP),先进的规划与排程(APS 系统),以及专门的供应链管理软件系统。这些系 统提供有更强大功能的厂商。为了实施零库存系统,企业需要有一个好的信息系统去处 理客户订单,分包商的订单,生产库存和所有和生产相关的事宜。如果公司没有 IT 基础 设施,这将从头建立。 一个好的信息系统可以帮助管理者得到准确的数据和做出战略决策。IT 基础设施 不是成本,而是一种投资。一个企业可以运用 RFID 理论,网路库存和其他的软件工具 去优化库存。 无线电频率识别(RFID) RFID 是一种自动识别方法, 依靠 RFID 标签或是转发器等设备来存储和远程检索数 据。 在企业供应链管理中应用 RFID 技术可以增加库存追踪和管理的效率。 RFID 的应用 通过追踪可重复使用资产发展了资产利用率,提供了透明化进度,通过追踪原材料,在 制品和产成品改善了质量控制,通过向企业资源规划和制造执行系统提供准确的、及时 的、详细的信息改善了生产执行能力和供应链绩效。 通过使用 RFID,库存的状态可以自动获得。使用 RFID 的好处有很多,例如较少库 存,较少时间,较少错误,无障碍增加,高度的安全,等等。
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网络库存 一个网络库存系统通过系统来追踪物品的移动,然后可以找到故障设备/过程,并且 向要诊断和纠正问题的地方提供所需资料。 它还决定了什么地方能力需要增加, 计算市 场条件的影响, 评估新产品和心顾客的影响。 当一个供应链的复杂程度非常大时网络库 存系统是非常重要的。它决定了未来生产和分配策略。它需要考虑生产,定位,库存和 运输。 网络库存系统软件,包括资产结构信息和变更管理,是强大的网络管理体系结构的 必要组成部分。网络库存系统向管理者提供信息,去改善网络管理性能和帮助开发有效 的网络资产的控制流程。 一个网络库存方案在一个共同的准确的数据库管理多个网络技术以及多个供应商的 网络资源信息。它对改善一些操作流程,例如资源问题管理,服务保障和规划,现场维 修和备件管理是极其有用的工具。 网络库存管理软件,包括资产结构信息和变更管理,是一个强大的网络管理题词的 必要组成部分。此外,为网络资产提供计划,设计和生命周期管理的软件工具应明显的 出线在企业的雷达屏幕上。 库存优化软件 I2库存优化 I2 解决方案,使顾客能够通过使用卓越的库存管理做法实现顶部和底部的利益。在 整个供应链中,I2库存优化可以帮助公司的监控,管理和优化决策,以决定生产什么, 购买什么以及从谁那购买,进行何种形式和数量的存货。它使顾客能够学习和不断改善 库存管理政策和流程,决策分析和优化。 以产品为导向的产业可以安装 i2库存优化和开发供应链。通过如此,企业可以降低 库存水平和全部的物流成本。它也可以得到更高的服务水平,提高客户满意度,提高资 产利用率,加速库存周转,提高产品的可用性,降低风险,更准确和更全面的供应链可 视性。 Oracle Inventory Optimization Oracle 库存管理系统考虑扩展供应链的需求,供给,约束性和可变性,以优化战略 库存投资决策。它允许零售商以较低的总成本向顾客提供更高的服务水平。 Oracle 是 Oracle 电子商务套装,一套设计共同工作的、完整的应用软件的一部分。当需求和供给 不确定时,Oracle 库存优化系统可以提供解决方案。它提供该计划的图示法。它计算成
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本和风险。 MRO 软件 MRO 软件(现在是 IBM 蒂沃利软件业务的一部分)宣布了一项与库存优化专家 Xtivity 的营销联盟,以加强 MRO 软件顾客的库存管理解决方案的服务提供。MRO 表示 将 Xtivity 的库存优化程序(xIO)作为其资产和服务管理方案的一个扩展。 结构化查询语言(SQL) 一个库存优化方案的成功实施需要很大的努力,并且可能给公司带来一定的风险。 结构化查询语言(SQL)可以用作一个普通的 ERP 平台。通过使用它可以决定最佳的库 存策略。与它一起,还可以计算出其他的指标,如预期的库存水平,预计积压和 their confidence bands 。 由于建筑和算法上的复杂性, 这种方法的唯一缺点是可能不能获得快 速及时的结果。然而,潜在的情形可以对客户请求中优先存储的结果进行与其分析。 一些样例 印度的丰田汽车实例 丰田,一个努力实现零库存有质量意识的公司,已选定三件运输(印度)有限公司 作为他们整个涵盖规划,交通运输,仓储,配送和管理信息系统及相关的文档的物流解 决方案。基础设施是继续尾随印度经济增长的瓶颈环节。Transystem 提供的服务有原始 设备制造商的部分采购,集中托运和运输服务业务,基于 JIT 原理从印度各地的供应商 购买材料,从车间到国内所有的交易者运用 CBU 的运输。 沃尔玛 沃尔玛是美国最大的零售商,占零售商货物和消费性业务的 20%,同时也是美国最 大的玩具销售商,占有玩具市场大约22%的份额。沃尔玛也出现在阿根廷,巴西,加拿 大,日本,莫斯科,Puerto Rico,还有英国。 沃尔玛通过广泛的采用供应商库存管理使货物从制造到商场货架成为流线型来和库 存保持紧密的联系。这样使流水线有更多的周转,因此更少的库存。 沃尔玛是较早采用 RFID 者去管理供应链不同阶段的货物流动。该公司将其所有产 品配备 RFID 标签来记录商品。 沃尔玛最近宣布他们正在向有挑战性的理论零库存模型迈进。 Chordus Inc. Chordus Inc.有美国办公家具最大的生产部门。它有先进的物流和零库存模型。它有 基于互联网的系统来分配网络以达到及时更新和低成本。
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Ludhiana 小规模自行车产业 在 Ludhiana 内和其周围,有许多非正规小型自行车厂。他们主要关注财务和原材料 的管理保证低的员工流动。他们一直在实施零库存模型,该模型不久后在日本流行。原 材料早上被运进车间,白天进行加工,晚上制成的产品将被运送至下一个车间。因此, 这条生产线一直运行直至成品被制造出来。用这种方法,在 Ludhiana 自行车曾经用 TI 自行车一半的生产成本制造出来。 甚至, 一些大的自行车制造商, 像英雄牌自行车, Atlas cycles and Avon cycles 宣称只有一周的库存量。 结论 库存管理者面临高服务水平需求并且许多 SKUs 感激库存优化的复杂性,同时透明 化控制在整个仓储投资,运输投资,物流投资中是必要的。库存优化可以提供比竞争对 手大的供应链业绩改善和正在进行的持续改善。公司实现固定需求并在不浪费资本分配 的情况下有足够的库存去满足不确定性需求。在正确的时间正确的地点又有适当量的库 存能改善顾客满意度,市场占有量和 bottom line。当然,有能力将库存优化做到企业水 平的公司将会获得更大的利润。零库存是一种理想化的意愿,但是拥有新的技术和流程 使库存管理更有效将会理那个理想更进一步。

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