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文献出处:Fetscherin M, Alon I, Johnson J P. Assessing the export competitiveness of Chinese industries[J]. Asian Business & Management, 2010, 9(3): 401-424. 原 文 Assessing the export competitiveness of Chinese industries Marc; Ilan; Johnson Introduction Competitiveness has been assessed and studied at various levels: country (Jones, 1994; Murtha and Lenway, 1994; Enright et al , 1999), region (Uysal et al , 2000), industry (Roth and Morrison, 1992; Mitchell et al , 1993; Contractor et al , 2005; Fetscherin and Alon, 2007) and network/group (Peng et al , 2001). Country-level assessments are provided in The Global Competitiveness Report (World Economic Forum, 2008), the World Competitiveness Yearbook (Institute for Management Development, 2008) and elsewhere (Eckhard, 2006), but are often too general to be applied to a single country (Krugman, 1994). In contrast, individual company cases and studies are too specific and may not be applicable to an entire industry or to all industries from a single country (Peng et al , 2001). Analyzing competitiveness at the industry level, however, provides greater detail and a better understanding of the competitive dynamics of an industry than the country or company level, for several reasons: (i) examining the degree of specialization for a given industry can identify the comparative (dis)advantage of a national industry; (ii) industry-specific analysis permits international comparisons of an industry's degree of specialization and rate of growth; and (iii) an industry-level analysis permits comparisons with other industries. One dimension of industry competitiveness is export competitiveness. A key indicator of the extent of export competitiveness of an industry is the degree of its participation in international trade. According to data published by the World Trade Organization (WTO, 2007), the volume of world merchandise trade in 2006 grew by 8 per cent to about US$11.8 trillion, compared to world gross domestic product growth of just 3.5 per cent. In the past two decades, world trade has grown much faster than world GDP, suggesting that the international economy is a source of dynamism and opportunity. The theory of comparative advantage (Smith, 1776; Ricardo, 1871; Ohlin, 1933; Heckscher, 1949) underscores the importance of specialization and trade in enhancing productivity and consumer well-being. Smith (1776) argued that, under free unregulated trade, each nation should specialize in the production of the goods that

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