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Lecture 01 Anglo-Saxon Literature


History of British Literature

Teaching Plan
(The 1st Time, 2 Hours)

I. II. III.

Title: Old English Literature(Anglo-Saxon Literature):Process of Christianization Aim: To Introduce Basic Knowledge about Anglo-Saxon Literature Emphases: (1) 3 major Cultural Sources (2) Characteristics of Anglo-Saxon Literature (3) Beowulf

IV. V. VI. VII.

Difficulties: 3 major cultural sources and Characteristics of Anglo-Saxon Literature Type of the Class: New Lesson Taught Means of Teaching: Lecture Teaching Process: # Literature reflects a culture. Why did the European whites come to America to kill and rob?

? 10,000 years ago, Stone Age hunters and gatherers (Cave Men) ? 3,000 BC. Iberians sailed around western England and Scotland to Scandinavia, some settled in England. ? 2,000~1,500BC,henges of giant rock slabs, Stonehenge ? The oldest natives whose culture and languages survived: Celts (7th Century B.C.,~100B.C.)750, Gaels; Britons (5 B.C., South, Britain) 布立吞 100BC, Gauls. ? ? 55 B.C. Julius Caesar invaded Britain; A.D.43, Claudius’s conquest; Early 5th century, Romans withdrew from Britain (411) Mid-5th century, Angles, Saxons, Jutes (Known as Anglo-Saxons) migrated to England from western Denmark and the northwest coast of Germany. (heathen). The Celts were enslaved and driven west and north (Wales, Scotland, even Ireland across the sea) ? 6th-7th (597-604/5) century, St. Augustine introduced Christianity and Latin language to England (In 598, he was ordained as the first archbishop of Canterbury.) Within a century, all England was Christianized. Ireland was converted to Christianity by Saint Patrick in the fifth century a.d. ? 8th century forward (8th C, after 787 to 11th C.) , Danish inroads, King Alfred the Great (A. D. 849-901, p.7) Danish ruling (A.D.1017-1042) ? 1066, Norman Conquest, end of Anglo Saxon period, feudalism Summary: ? ? ? The history of Ancient Britain was one to invade or being invaded. (cultural heritage) The Main Cultural Sources of British Literature: (The Celtic Culture)

? Greco-Roman Culture
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History of British Literature

? Judeo-Christian Culture ? Pagan Norse① Culture (III) Old English Literature 3.1 Characteristics: verse literature in oral form 3.2 Representatives: Poetry, Beowulf, Caedemon Cynewulf; prose, Venerable Bede Alfred the Great 3.3 Beowulf,oldest surviving national epic of the Anglo-Saxons, (IV) Anglo-Saxon Poetry Epic, An extended narrative poem in elevated or dignified language, celebrating the feats of a legendary or traditional hero. 4.1 Beowulf: Basic Information ? Written in Old English sometime before the tenth century A.D., describes the adventures of a great Scandinavian warrior of the sixth century. ? 3182 lines (longest of the surviving poems), setting in Denmark and South Sweden ? Partly historical, partly legendary ? Read the introduction to the story of Beowulf in the textbook then answer the Question: What are the characteristics of Beowulf? And why? 4.2 Writing Features of Beowulf ? Contents ? Pagan poem with Christian elements (Pagan virtue: strength, manliness, acquiescence in the decrees of fate—“what is to be must be”) ? Strife and conflicts (man vs. man; man vs. nature; inner struggles) journeying, sea life ? Form Verse (Epic Narrative poem) ? Oral (Spread by bards②/gleemen③/ minstrels/scops④ but not limited to them. Most of the people could do that. ) ? Strong stress, consonants, balance ? Alliteration ? Metaphors, understatements/kennings (whale-road: the sea; the bone house: human body) 4.3. Religious poetry ? Caedmon, p.5 (610-680) , the first known religious poet in England. ? Cynewulf, p.5 (9th century) , greatest Anglo-Saxon poet. (unknown until 1840) Love for Christ and reverence for Virgin Mary. (V) Anglo-Saxon prose
①Norse: (medieval) Scandinavia (including Norway and Sweden) inhabitants or language, culturally including Norway, Sweden and Denmark, sometimes including Iceland, Finland and the Faroese. ②Bard: Poet who composes. ③Gleemen/ minstrels: Retellers of existing poems. ④Poet, singers who compose poems 第2页共6页

History of British Literature

? ?

Venerable Bede, p.6 (673-735), Latin, Father of English learning. The Ecclesiastical History of the English People 《英格兰民族教会史》translated into English by Alfred Alfred the Great, p.7

? Alfred the Great (848-901), translator, scholar During the period of Danish invasion; The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, (historical book, best old English prose) (VI) Summary of Old English literature: A Process of Christianization. VIII. Homework: 1) Why is Middle Ages called Dark Ages? 2) What is the prevailing form of literature in Middle Ages? What are its characteristics? 3) What are the three periods of Chaucer’s literary creation? What is his most impor tant contribution? 4) What are the features of literature in Middle Ages? IX. Definition: Epic:A long narrative poem written in elevated style, in which heroes of great historical or legendary importance perform valorous deeds. The setting is vast in scope, covering great nations, the world, or the universe, and the action is important to the history of a nation or people. (e.g., The Iliad, the Odyssey, and the Aeneid are some great epics from world literature, and two great epics in English are Beowulf and Paradise Lost.) X. Bibliography: Inc., 2000. 陈佳.英国文学史.北京:商务印书馆,1982. 郭群英.英国文学新编.北京:外语教学与研究出版社,2001. 邵锦娣,白劲鹏.文学导论.上海:上海外语教育出版社,2002. 杨立民.新编大学英语(精读 5 教师用书).北京:外语教学与研究出版社,2003. XI. Postscript: 教学计划 (第 1 时间,2 小时) 一,名称:古英语文学(盎格鲁撒克逊文学):基督教化进程的 二。目的:介绍关于盎格鲁撒克逊文学的基本知识 三。重点: (1)3 个主要的文化渊源 盎格鲁撒克逊文学(2)特点 (3)贝奥武夫 四。难点:3 个主要文化来源和盎格鲁撒克逊文学的特点 五,类型类:新得出的教训
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Robert DiYanni. Literature: Reading, Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. The McGraw-Hill Companies,

History of British Literature

六。教学方式:课堂 七。教学过程: #文学反映了一种文化。为什么到美国来的欧洲白人杀害,抢劫? 1 万年前石器时代的狩猎者和采集者(洞穴男人)? 在公元前 3000 年。?伊比利亚围绕西部航行到斯堪的纳维亚,英格兰和苏格兰,在英国定居 一些。 2000?1500 年,henges 砖的巨石,巨石阵? 最古老的土著人的文化和语言活下来:凯尔特人(公元前 7 世纪,?100B.C.)750,Gaels; 英国人(5 年,南,英国)布立吞 100BC,高卢人。? ?公元前 55 凯撒两次入侵英国,AD43,克劳迪斯的征服; 5 世纪初,罗马人从英国(411)退 席 中期公元 5 世纪,盎格鲁,撒克逊人,朱特人(如盎格鲁撒克逊人知道)从西部迁移到英格 兰丹麦和德国西北部海岸。? (异教徒)。凯尔特人被奴役和带动西部和北部(威尔士,苏 格兰,爱尔兰甚至隔海相望) 6 日,7 日(597-604/5)世纪,圣奥古斯丁介绍基督教和拉丁语英国在一个世纪(在 598, 他是作为坎特伯雷大主教受戒。),所有英国是基督教化。?爱尔兰是由圣帕特里克转换基督 教在公元五世纪 ,后 787 至 11 角),丹麦侵蚀,国王阿尔弗雷德大帝(公元 849-901,第 7 8 世纪前(8? ? 页)丹麦裁决(AD1017 - 1042) 1066 年,诺曼征服,盎格鲁撒克逊时期结束时,封建主义? 摘要: 古代英国的历史是一个侵略和被侵略。? (文化遗产) 英国文学的主要文化来源:? (凯尔特文化)? 希腊罗马文化? 犹太教和基督教文化? 北欧异教文化? (三)古英语文学 3.1 特点:口头文学的诗的形式 3.2 代表:诗歌,贝奥武夫,Caedemon Cynewulf,散文,法师比德阿尔弗雷德大帝 3.3 贝奥武夫,现存最古老的盎格鲁撒克逊人的民族史诗, (四)盎格鲁撒克逊诗歌 史诗,用严肃或庄重的语言写成的叙事长诗,歌颂英雄传奇或传统的壮举。 4.1 贝奥武夫:基本信息 ,描述了一个伟大的战士六世纪斯堪的纳维亚的冒险故事。?在古英语写一段公元十世纪前 3182 线(幸存的诗最长的),在丹麦和瑞典南部设置?
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History of British Literature

部分历史,部分传奇? 阅读教科书到贝奥武甫的故事介绍,然后回答以下问题:? 什么是 Beowulf 的特点?为什么? 4.2 Beowulf 的写作特色 内容? 异教与基督教内容诗(蒲甘美德:力量,男子气概默许命运的法令,“什么是将要”)? 争斗和冲突(人主场迎战人,人主场迎战性质;内部斗争)痴痴地,海洋生物? 表格? 诗歌(史诗叙事诗) 口语(由诗人/ gleemen? /吟游诗人/角鸮但不限于他们。大部分的人能做到这一点的传播。) 强大的压力,辅音,平衡? 头韵? 隐喻,轻描淡写/肯宁斯(鲸道:大海;骨房子:人体)? 4.3。宗教诗歌 卡德蒙,小五(610-680),第一次在英国著名的宗教诗人。? Cynewulf,小五(9 世纪),最大的盎格鲁撒克逊诗人。? (直到 1840 年不详)爱基督和圣 母的崇敬。 (五)盎格鲁撒克逊人散文 老贝代,六(673-735),拉丁语,英语学习的父亲。?英国人民的“英格兰民族教会史”翻译 成英文阿尔弗雷德教会史 阿尔弗雷德大帝,第 7 页? 阿尔弗雷德大帝(848-901),在入侵期间的丹麦学者翻译;盎格鲁撒克逊编年史(历史的书, 最好的古英语散文)? (六)总结古英语文学:基督教化进程。 八。家庭作业: 1)为什么叫中世纪的黑暗时代? 2)什么是中世纪文学的普遍形式?它有什么特点? 3)什么是乔叟的文学创作的三个阶段?什么是他最重要的贡献? 4)什么是中世纪文学的特点是什么? 九。定义: 史诗:一个长篇叙事诗的形式编写升高,其中具有重大历史或传说中的重要性表现勇猛的英 雄事迹。该设置的范围广阔,包括伟大的国家,世界,或宇宙,和行动是重要的一个国家或 民族的历史。 (例如,伊利亚特,奥德赛,并埃涅伊特来自世界文学的一些伟大的史诗,在 英国和两个伟大的史诗是贝奥武夫和失乐园)。 十,参考书目: 罗伯特 DiYanni。文学:阅读,小说,诗歌和戏剧。麦格劳希尔公司,公司,2000。
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History of British Literature

陈佳英国文学史北京:。。商务印书馆,1982。 郭群英英国文学新编北京:。。外语教学与研究出版社,2001。 。邵锦娣,白劲鹏文学导论上海:。上海外语教育出版社,2002。 。杨立民新编大学英语(精读 5 教师用书)北京:。外语教学与研究出版社,2003。 十一。后记:

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