never give up
Never lose heart when in great trouble
insist on what they pursue
do your best set up an aim
get on well with others
be active in society activities
Be willing to do public service
How many parts can the text be divided into? Give the general idea of each part.
Paragraph 1-2 The life of Elias’ before he met Nelson Mandela.
Paragraph 3-5 The change of Elias’ life after he met Nelson Mandela and what Mandela did.
▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼
1946 ▼ 1948 Trying hard Later 1952 ▼
▼ ▼ ▼
leave couldn’t write or read got a job be worried about joined out of work went to Mandela for advice
When he organized … 1963
helped him blow up
3. Where did Elias live? A. In a classroom. B. In a home of his own. C. In a large room with beds. D. With his family.
The jobs they did Where the workers lived
How much land they owned Their hospitals and schools
No need for a passbook With their families
Need a passbook With their workmates
Most of South Poorest parts Africa of South Africa
The best The worst
1. He fought against the German Nazis and Japanese invaders during World War II. 二战时 期他抵抗德国纳粹和日本侵略者。 fight (fought, fought) fight for 为……而战 fight against 与……作斗争 We will have to fight against difficulties. They told the workers to fight for their rights.
2. He founded the first Republic in China in 1911 after many years’ fighting. 经过多年斗 争他于1911在中国创建了第一个共和国。 found (founded, founded) 建立，创建 find (found, found) The hospital was founded in 1920. Have you found your missing pen?
3. He strongly believed in the three principles: nationalism; people’s rights; people’s livelihood. 他坚信三条 原则：民族，民权，民生。 believe in 信任，信仰 Do you believe in God? We believe in our government. believe sb. = believe what sb. says 相信某人的话 believe in sb. 信任某人 I believe what he said because I believe in him.
4. He fought for the black people and was in prison for thirty years. 他为黑 人而战且坐过三十年监狱。 be in prison 在狱中，被监禁 He has been in prison for five years. put…in prison = send…to prison = throw …into prison 把……投入监狱 The car thieves have been put in prison. He was sent to prison for ten years.
5. The time when I first met Nelson Mandela was a very difficult period of my life.
period 期间，时期，学校的一节课，周期 Let’s finish this period and have a break.
a period of rotation 自转周期 the time when 其中when 引起定语从句 This was a time when you had got to have a passbook to live in Johannesburg. Do you still remember the time when we first met?
6. It was in 1952 and Mandela was the black lawyer to whom I went for advice. He offered guidance to poor black people on their legal problems. He was generous with his time, for which I was grateful. 那是在1952年，曼德拉是我寻求帮助的一位 黑人律师。他为那些穷苦黑人提供法律指 导。他十分慷慨得给与我时间，我为此非 常感激。
To whom I went for advice是定语从句修饰the black lawyer,关系代词whom 前介词用to, 是因为 从句里动词went的搭配需要，即: whom I went to for advice.
For witch I was grateful一句中，关系代词 which 前用介词 for是由于从句中形容词 grateful的搭 配： be grateful for sth。
1) advise sb. on sth. 就……给某人出主意 I have advised you on that subject. 2) advise sb. to do sth. 建议某人干…… Our monitor advises me to practice more spoken English. 3) advise that +(should) do I advise that you (should) not eat fruit that isn’t ripe.
7. The last thirty years have seen the greatest
number of laws stopping our rights and progress, until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all. 过去３０ 年来所出现的大量法律剥夺了我们的权利， 阻挡我们的进步，一直到今天，，我们还处 在几乎没有什么权利都没有的阶段。 see 在此句意为“经历；有..经历
You and I have seen some good times together. 你我一 起共同度过一段美好的时光。 during the war he saw service in the Far East. 战争期间他在远东服役。
I went on stage and did my show.
2 阶段，时期 the plan is still in its early stages.
8.We were put into a position in which we had either to accept we were less important of fight the government.我们被置于这样一个境地： 要么我们被迫接受低人一等的现实，要么更 政府作斗争。 in a position to do sth 能够，有能力 I’m not in a position to help you right now. In/out of position 在适当的位置，在不适当的 位置 This chair is out of position. Please put it back in position.
9. We first broke the law in a way which was peaceful…only then did we decide to answer violence with violence. 首先我们用和平的方式 来破坏法律；而当这种方式也得不到允许 时，..只有到这个时候，我们才决定用暴力反 抗暴力。 ? 用only修饰副词或状语又放在句首时，这个 句子要局部倒装。 ? Only in this way can you solve the problem ? Only 如果修饰主语，句子不需要倒装。 ? Only one thing can make him change his mind.
10.Why did Nelson Mandela turn to violence to make black and white people equal? ? Turn to: 求助于；转向 ? I tried to stand on my own two feet rather than turned to my parents ? Turn to the left and you will find the post
11. I did not work again for twenty years until Mr. Mandela and the ANC came to power in 1993. come to power 上台；当权 in power 执政 take power 用武力夺取政权 Things have changed a lot since he came to power. How long has he been in power? the general had tried to take power, but he failed at last.
12. All the terror and fear of that time came back to me. fear n. 恐惧，可怕 vt. 恐惧，害怕 + n./to do /that… Do you fear death? She fears to speak in our presence. I fear that we can’t protect ourselves. for fear of …& for fear that… 担心 He left an hour earlier for fear of missing the train. She worried for fear that the child would be hurt.
13. They said that the job and the pay from the new South African government were my reward after working all my life for equal rights for the Blacks. reward n. 报酬，奖金 He worked hard but without much reward.
vt. 酬谢，给以报答 He rewarded me with a prize. in reward 作为报酬 She got nothing in reward for her kindness.
14. The scientist from whom___ never lost heart when he was in trouble. lose heart 灰心，丧失信心 Please don’t lose heart, you still have more chances. lose one’s heart 爱上，喜欢上 She lost heart to him as soon as she saw the handsome soldier. in trouble 有麻烦，处于不幸中 He never came expect when he was in trouble.
Information on a car accident by: A Where did it happen? How many people in the accident? BEFORE THE ACCIDENT Where was the boy? Where was the car? What happened? On the road 2 Walking in the bicycle lane of the road Coming up behind the boy The car was going too fast and did not look. The car driver It hit the boy and hurt him.
Who caused it?
Information on a car accident by: B Where did it happen? How many people in the accident? BEFORE THE ACCIDENT Where was the boy? Where was the car? What happened?
On the road. 2 Walking in the road. Came up behind the boy. The boy moved further into the road. The car tried to stop but it couldn’t and it hit the boy. The boy was hurt. The boy.
Who caused it?
A Follower of Bill Gates
Information About Bill Gates
Job Achievements What did he give up for his beliefs? Generosity Why does he have enemies? Chief executive officer Produced Microsoft None Gave money to help the education and health of many children around the world Other people are jealous of his success. They think he is too big and too powerful and unfair to his competitors.
Why attacked by the government?
Divide the students into groups of the four to discuss the question. After the discussion, the representatives from each group present the discussion of their group.
Bill Gate is a successful and rich man, but is he a great man? Has he given up anything (not money) in his life to help other people and made things fairer in the world?
The Attributive Clause 定语从句 2
which/that 1) A plane is a machine ________________ can fly. which/that/ 省略 2) The car _______________________ my uncle bought last week was stolen. who/that 3) The students ________________ don’t study hard will not pass the exam. whom/that/ 省略 4) The woman ___________________ you saw in the park is our English teacher. that 5) He talked happily about the men and books_______ interested him greatly in the school. that 即指人又指物，作主语或宾语。 which 指物，作主语或宾语。 who, whom指人, who作主语, whom作宾语。 that,which,whom在定语从句中作宾语时，可省去。
关系副词when, where, why引导定语从句 1. where 表示地点，其先行词往往是表示地点 的名词， 如place, room, house, street, area 等。 ? This is the house where I lived last year. in the house= where ? This is the hospital where I was born. In the hospital=where 关系副词实际上是介词＋先行词
2. when表示时间，其先行词往往是表示时间 的名词，如time, day, hour, year等。 ? I still remember the day when I came here
On the day= when This was a time when there were still slaves in the USA. During the time=when
3. why表示原因，常放在先行词reason后面. ?This is the reason why he cried. for the reason=why There are many reasons why people like traveling. for the reasons =why
把下面的句子连接成定语从句 1. Beijing is a beautiful city. I went there last summer. Beijing is a beautiful city where I went last summer. 2. I remember the day. My father made his first real film on that day. I remember the day when/on which my father made his first real film. 3. The reason was that he passed the exam. He was so happy for the reason. The reason why/for which he was so happy was that he passed the exam.
关系副词 被代替的先行 在从句中的作 词 用
When(at,in,on, 表时间的名词 during+which)
Where (in, on, 表地点场合等 地点状语 at +which) 名词
when /in which 1.I’ll never forget the days______________ we worked together. which 2.I’ll never forget the days ___________ we spent together.
3.I went to the place ago.
where/ in which I worked ten years
4.I went to the place _____________ I visited ten years ago. which
why/ for which 5.This is the reason _____________________ he was late.
that/which 6.This is the reason _____________________ he gave.
Fill in the blank with correct word.( when, why & where)
1. We will put off the picnic until next week, _____the weather may be better. when 2. The place _____ I met him was a supermarket. where 3. He refused to disclose the reason _____ he did it. why 4. Beijing is a beautiful city _____ I went last summer. where
where 1. The factory _____ I worked was 9km away from my house. 2. The time ______ I arrived was late at when night. 3. That is no reason ______ you should why leave
The man whom you spoke to was a scientist. The city away. which she lives in is far
介词+关系代词的情况 2 Are these two sentences right? The man scientist. The city far away. who/whom you spoke to was a that/which she lives in is
Are these two sentences right?
The man scientist. The city far away. to who/whom you spoke in that/which she lives is was a
Are these two sentences right? to The man who/whom you spoke was a scientist. in The city that/which she lives is far away.
Are these two sentences right? The man to who/whom you spoke × scientist. The city in that/which she lives × far away. is was a
on which 1.Do you like the book __________ she spent 10$? 2.Do you like the book __________ she paid for which 10$?
3. Do you like the book _________ she learned a lot? from which 4.Do you like the book ________ she often talks? 5. He built a telescope _________ he can study the about which sky. through which
6. There is a tall tree outside, ______ which under Stand our Teacher. 7.China has a lot of rivers, the second longest _______ isof which River. the Yellow from 8. The tower _______ which people can have a good view is on the hill. to whom 9. The man ________ I spoke on the phone last night is very good at wrestling. 10. He paid the boy $10 for washing ten of which windows, most ______ hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year.