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the anglo-saxon period


The Island of Thanet is situated at the north east part of the county of Kent, being separated from the rest of it by the river Stour on the southern, and by the water called the Nethergong, on the western side of it. It is said by most writers to be the same as was called by the Britons, Inis Ruim, (fn. 1) or Ruochim; that is, the island of Richborough; though Richborough itself, having antiently been an island, may reasonably be supposed to have been rather so called. Julius Solinus is the first of the Roman writers, who mentions it by the name of Athanaton and Thanaton. The Saxons afterwards called it Teneth, and Tenetlonde, which name it still bears, though by change of language, and length of time, it has been softened to that of Thanet, as it is called at present. Some time between 190 and 225, the Romans built the London Wall, a defensive wall around the landward side of the city. The London Wall was one of the largest construction projects carried out in Roman Britain. The wall was about 3.4 kilometres (nearly 3 miles) long, 6 metres (20 feet) high, and 2.5 metres (8 feet) thick. From the fifth century to early medieval times such a building was the residence of a lord and his retainers. The mead hall was generally the great hall of the king. As such, it was likely to be the safest place in the kingdom. 基涅武甫(盎格鲁-撒克逊诗人,生活在公元 9 世纪诺森伯里亚或麦西亚,其古英语 、 、 诗稿于 10 世纪被发现,有《埃琳娜》《使徒们的命运》《基督升天》和《朱莉安 娜》等)

epic, a long narrative poem celebrating the great deeds of one or more legendary heroes, in a grand ceremonious style. The hero, usually protected by or even descended from gods, performs superhuman exploits in battle or in marvellous voyages, often saving or founding a nation–as in Virgil's Aeneid (30–20 BC)–or the human race itself, in Milton's Paradise Lost (1667). Virgil and Milton wrote what are called ‘secondary’ or literary epics in imitation of the earlier ‘primary’ or traditional epics of Homer, whose Iliad and Odyssey (c. 8th century BCE) are derived from an oral tradition of recitation. They adopted many of the conventions of Homer's work, including the invocation of a muse, the use of epithets, the listing of heroes and combatants, and the beginning in medias res (for other epic conventions, see epic simile, formulaic, machinery). The Anglo‐Saxon poem Beowulf (8th century BCE) is a primary epic, as is the oldest surviving epic poem, first page of Beowulf in Cotton Vitellius A. xv. Kenning: A figurative, usually compound expression used in place of a name or noun, especially in Old English and Old Norse poetry; for example, storm of swords is a kenning for battle.

In the Old Testament, the sons of Adam and Eve. According to Genesis Cain, the Genesis, first-born, was a farmer and his brother Abel was a shepherd. Cain was enraged farmer, r when God preferred his brother’s sacrifice of sheep to his own offering of grain and grain, he murdered Abel. When God asked where Abel was was, Cain pretended ignorance ignorance, saying, “Am I my brother's keeper keeper?” God punished Cain by sending him into exile y but marked him with a sign as a warning to others others, promising that he would be avenged if he were killed.

s Scholars have identified numerous themes in Beowulf, many related to the portrayal of the Germanic comitatus relationship, a code of social behavior , stressing the reciprocity enjoyed between a lord and his thanes. In return for protection provided by the lord, the thanes owe service and loyaltyIt can be concluded that this poem shows how the primitive people fight against th the forces of the natural world under a wise and mighty leader.


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