Unit 10 Part I warming up A First of all, locate the gate at the bottom of the page. When you walk into the compound, the first building on your right is the Out-Patient Department (2), the first on your left is the Emergency Department (1). If you want to go to the Physicians Department, take the first turn on the left and walk straight ahead. You’ll see a fountain spring. Pass by it and walk in the same direction, you’ll see the Physician Department (5). If you want to get your blood tested in the Laboratory, walk straight along the Main Road until you reach a roundabout. Turn left from the roundabout and walk a few minutes. Take the right turn and the first building coming into your sight is the Laboratory (8). Another building on the X-ray Department (9). If you turn left from the roundabout and walk ahead until you reach the end of the road, you will see the Eye, Ear, and Throat Department(6). The building next to it to the north is the Dental Department (7). If you want to visit your relatives or friends who are hospitalized, you got the Ward, which is not difficult to find. Take the right turn
from the roundabout and a small lake will come into your view. The winding road along the lake will lead you to the Ward (11). If you go past the roundabout and walk along the Main Road for a few minutes, you will see a building on your right. That’s the Administrative Building (10). Well, where do we get the medicines? From the Dispensary (4). That’s the building facing the Out-Patient Department on the north side of the road. Another building on the north side of the road is the Surgery Department(3).
B: 2 teaspoonfuls, not exceed 15 teaspoonfuls per day. Half of the adult dosage, not exceed 7 teaspoonfuls per day
Exceed recommended dosage Children under 6 Individuals with high blood pressure, heart disease, or diabetes
Drive or operate machinery Discontinue use and consult your physician Chronic cough
Remember to check the dosage before you take this medicine. Adults twelve years old and over take two teaspoonfuls, but do not exceed fifteen teaspoonfuls per day. Children six years old to twelve take half of the adult dosage, but do not exceed seven teaspoonfuls per day. And here are the warnings you should keep in mind. Do not exceed the recommended dosage unless directed by a physician. Do not administer to children under six years old or to individuals with high blood pressure, heart disease, or diabetes. This preparation many cause drowsiness. Do not drive or operate machinery while taking this medication. Chronic cough is dangerous. If relief does not occur within three days, discontinue use and consult your physician.
Reducing risk of developing lung cancer Walking Health problems Fresh, natural food good effect on heart
Life-enhancing and life-elongating A healthier being.
Tea contains natural chemicals. These chemicals block the action of some substances produced in the bodies that cause cancer. Tea contains the same substances in fruits and vegetables. Drinking tea could protect people’s health. Cigarette smokers of any age reduce their risk of developing lung cancer when they stop smoking. It is never too late to stop smoking. Walking has a good effect on the heart because it reduces blood pressure, blood sugar and blood cholesterol level. It is never too late to start exercising. Vitamins are necessary for good health. However, extremely large amounts of some vitamins may cause health problems. It is far better to get vitamins from eating fresh, natural food than from taking vitamin pills
Laughter is one of the most wonderful release. It releases the chemical that is life-enhancing and life-elongating. It heals wounds and promotes a healthier being.
D: They have found that fatness can spread form person to person in social groups. A friend / a 57% increased chance
up to 4% of adults and up to 8% of young children They can result in trouble breathing and in some cases death.
extreme heat The nighttime temperature does not drop much from the highest daytime temperature and this causes great stress on the human body
to rest for a short period in the middle of the day One study found that persons who sleep fro a few minutes during the day were less likely to die of heart disease.
Researchers say they have found that fatness can spread from person to person in social groups. When one person gains weight, close friends often gain weight, too. The study was published last month in the New England Journal of Medicine. The study showed that when a person becomes severely overweight, there is a 57% increased
chance that one of their friends will be, too. A sister or brother of the overweight person has a 40% increased chance of becoming fat. The increased risk for a wife or husband is a little less than that. 2. in the United States, experts estimate that up to 4% of adults and up to 8% of young children have food allergies. Every year these allergies cause about 30，000 cases of anaphylaxis, a sever reaction that requires immediate treatment. It can result in trouble breathing and in some cases death. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases say 100 to 200 people die. It says most of the reactions resulted from peanuts and tree nuts such as walnuts. 3. floods, storms and other natural events kill thousands of people every year. So does extreme heat. Experts say heat may be nature’s deadliest killer. Recently, extreme heat was blamed for killing more than 100 people in India. Daytime temperatures rose to more than 45 degrees Celsius in some areas. On June eleventh, the temperature in one desert town hit 51 degrees. Experts say the total heat of a hot day or several days can affect health. Several hot days are considered a heat wave. Experts say heat
waves often become dangerous when the nighttime temperature does not drop much form the highest daytime temperature. This causes great stress on the human body. 4. medical experts say most Americans do not get
enough sleep. They say more Americans need to rest for a short period in the middle of the day. They are advising people to sleep lightly before continuing with other activities. One study earlier this year found that persons who sleep for a few minutes during the day were less likely to die of heart disease. The study followed more than 23,000 Greek adults for about 6 years. Adults s who rested for half an hour at least three times a week had a 37% lower risk of dying form heart disease than those who did not nap.
Part II B 67% of Americans questioned Wash their hands after using a public restroom Reducing the spread of infectious diseases
Colds, influenza, throat and ear infections, food poisoning, cholera, hepatitis A public information campaign Soap and hot water for at least 15 seconds.
听力原文 ： Health experts say washing your hands reduces the spread of viruses and other organisms that cause disease. This advice may sound simple. However experts say a lot of people do not follow it. A recent study found that many Americans fail to wash their hands after using public toilets. More than 95% of Americans questioned said they always wash their hands after using public restrooms. However, the study found that only 67% of them actually do so. The study also found that American men are less likely than women to wash their hands after suing a public restroom. The American Society for Microbiology announced the findings. Judy Daly works for the group. She admits that
hand washing may seem an unusual subject to study. But she says hand washing is a very serious issue. Experts say hand washing is the simplest and most effective way to reduce the spread of infectious diseases. Infections can spread by touching surfaces that have harmful organisms on them. Shaking hands with another person also can spread infection. Harmful bacteria may enter your body if you touch your mouth, nose or eyes. Among the most common infections spread by hand are colds, influenza, and throat and ear infections. In addition, millions of food poisoning cases each year are blamed on people who prepare food who do not wash their hands. More serious diseases like cholera and hepatitis are spread this way, too. Many patients in hospitals also get infections. Some die from them. The spread of infections often is blamed on health workers who do not wash their hands after treating patients. The American Society of Microbiology has launched a public information campaign to get more people to wash their hands. Experts say following the correct method is important. You should wash your hands with soap and hot
water for at least 15 seconds. Modification Part III A 1. the lung, breast, liver, mouth 2. a. smoking b. alcohol use e. physical inactivity g. indoor smoke h. injections I unsafe sex. B
1. 2.5 million / 9 factors that people can control 3. 1/3 / unhealthy lifestyle and environmental exposures 5. twice 6. preventable cancers. 1. lifestyle and environmental modification
2. risk factor reduction
U. S. , Australasian, and New Zealand scientists report in the journal Lancet that nine factors that people and societies can control cause nearly 2.5 million cancer cases each year. That is about 1/3 of the seven million annual global total. These include caners of the lung, breast, bladder, cervix, liver, pancreas, mouth and digestive tract. Leading the list of causes is smoking, which the researchers say is responsible for 20% of preventable cancers. Alcohols use and low consumption of fruits and
vegetable cause another 5% each. Also significant are overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, urban air pollution, indoor smoke from household cooking, contaminated injections in health clinics, and unsafe sex. One of the study’s co-authors, Harvard University public health researcher Majid Ezzati, says the statistics reflect data on cancer deaths in 2001. He expects an increase in the proportion of death from these risk factors.
“The estimates that we have are looking at what happens today as a result of past exposure. So one-third of cancer deaths today would have been avoided had these lifestyle and environmental exposures not been present. If we were to speculate about the future, we could actually say more
than one in every three cancer deaths could be avoided because things such as smoking actually have been going up in many countries in the world, so we actually haven’t seen the full effects of it yet. ” The new study finds that developing countries had more than twice as many preventable cancer deaths as rich nations. Among the developing regions, Eastern Europe and Central Asia had the highest proportion of cancer deaths attributable to the nine risk factors --- 39 percent compared to the global average of 35 percent. Furthermore, Mr. Ezzati says twice as many men as women died from such cancers.
Mr. Ezzati and his colleagues say that the best option for reducing the increasing global burden of cancer is through lifestyle and environmental modifications because medical science is not close to controlling it. Despite the drive to seek cancer cures, they point out that advances
in treatment have not been as effective as for other chronic diseases, and effective screening methods are available for only a few cancers.
“There is a huge amount of resources going in to the war on cancer and to biomedical technologies. It is certainly not matched by equivalent research and application of risk factor reduction. So I think should be a reminder of how large the role of prevention can be for reducing cancer deaths.”
1． 42 doctors, dieticians, ． pharmacists 2． 24 hours a day, seven ． days a week 3． Clearing house ．
4． Free ． 1. board-certified doctors 2. 24 hours a day, seven days a week 3. practice medicine 4. $50 per visit
Is there a doctor in the house? The answer is always yes if you have a computer and a modern at home. Did you forget to ask your doctor an important question on your last visit? Has another issue come up? No problem. You can get in touch with a doctor via the internet at nay hour of the day or night. In just the past few months, hundreds of doctors have gone on line 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Owings Mills, Maryland in the Washington DC suburbs is the headquarters of “America’s Doctor
Online.” 42 primary care doctors as well as dieticians and
pharmacists provide free information ot cllers with health questions. The firm’s founder is Dr Scott Rifkin “we are not trying to practice medicine. We are trying to give consumers good information on hteir various healthcare issues. We are not going to diagnose. We are not going to prescribe. We are going to listen to the consumer, and have them ask us questions and then give them information that they need most. The idea is to give them directed information that’s usable to the consumer.” Dr Rifkin told ABC News that America’s Doctor Online acts as a clearing house for the hundreds of thousands of responses a web browser might turn up in answer to a question. The online health professionals don’t diagnose or treat medical conditions. And they don’t charge for their service. They are not known by their names but by Amdoc Number 3 or 4 or whatever. “our physicians are very carefully trained to not practice medicine and to always refer ”