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The virtual construction site a web-based teaching-learning environment in construction technology_图文

Automation in Construction 10 ?2000. 169–179 www.elsevier.comrlocaterautcon

The virtual construction site: a web-based teachingrlearning environment in construction technology
Brian Wilkins ) , John Barrett
Department of Building & Construction, and the Courseware De?elopment Laboratory, City Uni?ersity of Hong Kong, Tat Chee A?enue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China Accepted 14 March 2000

Abstract Site visits form an important component in teachingrlearning in many aspects of civil engineering education. However, due to scheduling and access difficulties, and the overriding need for safety, real time site visits may not be possible, and alternative approaches need to be investigated. One approach, described in this paper, is the creation of multimedia databases of actual buildings under construction. This material, suitably structured, can then be delivered through the World Wide Web or from a CD-ROM, thus creating Avirtual construction sites.B The web site described in this paper forms part of a much larger group of web sites developed by four Universities in Hong Kong over the past 2 years and now approaching completion. This large series of linked web sites is known as CIVCAL and provides a comprehensive teachingrlearning environment for students in many aspects of civil engineering. This paper describes the web site being developed by City University within CIVCAL. The City University web site is known as the Virtual Building & Construction Environment and is designed specifically to support teachingrlearning in building construction technology. q 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Web-based learning; Virtual construction sites; Construction technology

1. Introduction In order to fully understand the manner in which buildings are assembled, and in particular, the complexities of integrating a range of construction and engineering technologies, it is essential that students in civil engineering and construction technology visit construction sites during their education. However, scheduling and access difficulties may make actual site visits impossible to organise. In addition, there is
Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: bcbrianw@cityu.edu.hk ?B. Wilkins., smjohn@cityu.edu.hk ?J. Barrett..
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the need to consider site safety, particularly in Hong Kong, where the construction industry’s dismal record in this area has promoted a powerful site safety ethos in recent years. Also in Hong Kong, the rapid growth in the size of classes in the last 10 years has made it increasingly difficult to persuade contractors to permit site visits. The aim of CIVCAL w1x is to address this need by bringing together four universities in Hong Kong delivering courses in various aspects of civil engineering, and to develop a series of linked web sites related to the specific areas of civil engineering and construction expertise in each university. The universities are Hong Kong University ?overall CIVCAL

0926-5805r00r$ - see front matter q 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PII: S 0 9 2 6 - 5 8 0 5 ? 0 0 . 0 0 0 7 5 - 3

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project leader., the City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, and the Hong University of Science and Technology. The project is funded by a University Grants Council ?UGC. Teaching Development Grant of HK$4.8 million, with a further supplement from Hong Kong University. City University’s share of the grant for the production of its part of the overall CIVCAL web site is just over HK$1.00 million, about half of which is being allocated to design and data collection, and half to development and production. CIVCAL is being produced within a three-year programme, commencing on 1 September 1997, with completion by 31 August 2000. It is envisaged that other papers will be written related to the overall design and development of CIVCAL and to the individual input of the various participating universities. This paper specifically describes that part of CIVCAL being produced by the City University of Hong Kong and known as the Virtual Building & Construction Environment w2x. The aim of the City University team was to develop and implement interactive multimedia courseware, which provides undergraduate students with access to construction projects illustrating technologies and construction processes for medium- to high-rise construction. The main vehicles chosen to provide the multimedia data bases were a mediumrise, short-span residential building using traditional in situ reinforced concrete technology, a high rise public housing project incorporating standardisation and prefabrication, and a high rise public housing project incorporating advanced form work systems. The material from construction sites was gathered, sorted, and collated to create databases of core information and then organised and designed as a product for presentation on the World Wide Web and from a CD-ROM. This final product is in the form of video, graphics, animations, photographs ?including timelapse sequences., text and audio commentary relating to manufacturing, production, assembly, and testing of construction work. There are, in addition, supporting technical data in the form of graphics and textual representations of drawings and other design and production information. A further feature of the product permits the addition of new construction project databases without affecting overall design, particularly of existing

Homepages. The first of these new additions is already being incorporated. This is an electronic version of a recent publication by Wong w3x, a member of the City University CIVCAL team, covering the construction of the 15 most outstanding construction projects in Hong Kong in recent years. These include the Hong Kong Convention Centre, the Chek Lap Kok Airport Passenger Terminal and various major civil engineering projects. 2. Web-based teachingr learning r The use of computerised delivery methods in higher education has become popular in recent years. A number of authors have referred to this phenomenon, including Hall w4x, Treuer and Belote w5x, and Geyer and Costa w6x, who refer to the Abewildering arrayB of choices in new delivery modes in higher education. Geyer and Costa also point to the element of competition, which, they assert, is becoming an increasingly significant factor in making these choices. Hall w4x puts the Adawn of the technologybased training revolutionB at 1993. Some early examples were in arts and communications subjects and in aspects of medicine as discussed by Jain et al. w7x, who describe the web as a widely accessible source, an information bank, and a method of transmitting knowledge to students. One of the latest trends is in the use of web-based methods, and by 1998, Barron w8x had attempted to classify and define the various modes of web-based delivery. She suggests that Web-based training ?WBT. is emerging as the preferred acronym in industry, whereas, Webbased instruction ?WBI. and Web-based learning ?WBL. are increasingly used in the academic world. Kilby w9x, in the WBT Information Centre, describes how WBT presents live content, Aas fresh as the moment,B in a structure which would allow self-directed instruction, or as the authors of this paper would prefer, Aself-directed learningB as implied by the WBL approach. This approach has particular appeal in environments where the native language may not be the language of instruction, as in Hong Kong. In these situations, the traditional lecture is unlikely to be entirely appropriate, even when supported by a proliferation of hard copy handouts. The web, on the other hand, permits the delivery of material through an attractive multimedia vehicle.

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In addition, there are a number of areas of higher education where it is essential that students have access to visual examples, and ultimately, real world practice in order to fully appreciate the implications of theory and classroom-based learning. Many subjects in the construction field, including architecture and a range of engineering subjects, fall within this category. Miranda and Park w10x describe a lesson system relating to the teaching of architectural concepts, which was prepared with HTML documents and CGI scripts, and placed on a restricted intranet site. Martini w11x used digital imaging as a basis for WBL of structural concepts. The City University’s Virtual Building & Construction Environment goes further and uses digitised multimedia to produce a rich virtual environment for students to explore at will. At different stages of the educational process, the student is able to gain access to building production processes of varying complexity. Where networked computerised classrooms and lecture theatres are available, this exploration can be structured as a formal supportive part of the teaching curriculum under the guidance of tutors. Alternatively ?and in addition to formal presentation., the virtual environment may be repeatedly explored by individual students from their own computers, until concepts and issues are fully understood. 2.1. Multimedia applications Kilby w9x defines multimedia as any application that uses multiple media such as graphics, text, animations, audio and video, but excluding the mode or medium of delivery. Saad and Hancher w12x differentiate between ApassiveB and AinteractiveB multimedia, the former being the sequential presentation of material outside the control of the user ?such as a slide show., and the latter enabling the user to navigate through a series of presentations. Multimedia systems are particularly suited to interactive application since they allow, again as pointed out by Saad and Hancher, huge collections of visual media, text and other data to be stored in a single digital document and accessed easily and quickly, with the computer as AcontrollerB or Aintegrator.B The Virtual Building & Construction Environment takes full advantage of the interactive qualities of multimedia and the potential for collecting, storing and accessing a

wide range of media applications. For the reasons discussed above in paragraph 2, the World Wide Web was seen as the ideal channel through which interactive multimedia courseware can be delivered to its audience. This particular audience exists in an environment where the language of instruction ?English. is not the native language of the students ?Chinese., and where access to real construction activities and processes is an essential requirement of their education. The World Wide Web is ideally suited to providing this access, on-demand, and Alive . . . as fresh as the moment.B A variety of media was selected, which would lead to the creation of an attractive and interesting site and which was particularly suited to the presentation, explanation and understanding of construction processes of increasing complexity. These included screen text, graphics, drawings, video with audio commentary, animations, and photographs, including time-lapse sequences. The emphasis is obviously on visual representation, with text kept to the minimum necessary for understanding of what is being viewed. Video, animations and time-lapse photographic sequences are features of the site, since they are seen as being particularly useful in portraying the processes of building assembly. Still photographs, with captions and explanations, permit a more thorough analysis of individual production processes, testing, and laboratory based experimentation. Drawings are presented in the Design and Production Offices. These drawings can be down loaded into an AUTOCAD format for study and manipulation by the user. Links to other related web sites are given in the Design Office.

3. Cognitive underpinning and design Building a multimedia teachingrlearning package is similar in many respects to any other form of construction in that the underlying design is at least as important as its implementation. The conceptual and educational ‘architecture’ of this web site received as much attention as the ‘engineering’ of components ?text, audio, video, graphic and photographic. and their assembly. Within the design architecture, the education ‘underpinning,’ derived from research in Cognitive Psychology ?Neisser w13x., In-

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structional Science ?Reigeluth w14x. and Cognitive Science ?Eysenck and Keane w15x, Mayer w16x., is the most highly weighted factor contributing to the success of the educational materials. With a view to maximizing learning experiences, a number of key design and educational issues were addressed and these are discussed below. 3.1. Cogniti?e underpinning The instructional design concept for this web site, rests on a AcognitivistrconstructivistB view of the learner and learning. In this approach, learners use what they know in order to make sense of the world, as shown by Bruner w17x. They balance their knowledge base against the information they encounter in each experience. For the subject area, or discipline, encountered here in the CIVCAL site, students have a reasonable level of knowledge gained from previous courses, introductory lectures and observation ?especially in Hong Kong, which could be regarded as Aone large building siteB due to the predominance of construction works.. Students need to have freedom to explore the virtual environment, whilst at the same time, constructing their own organized knowledge base of concepts. Various methodologies have been suggested for knowledge representation, for example by Minsky w18x, and Schank and Abelson w19x. The method of Concept Mapping was introduced in order to identify the underlying knowledge base and the interrelationship of ideas. Using a framework proposed by Anderson w20x, over about a month, Faculty identified the concrete and abstract concepts ?Declarative Knowledge. as well as the skill sequences ?Procedural Knowledge.. The outcome of analysis of the curricula, review of how the industry operated and interviews with experts enabled a working document to be created showing clusters of knowledge and their interrelationships ?after Chase and Simonw21x and Chi et al. w22x.. This generalised representation of conceptual material made structures and sequencing explicit, enabling functionality, navigation and programming tasks to be delineated. Another consideration was the Design Metaphor. An ‘Encyclopedia’ approach was suggested but this was later rejected on the grounds of its topic-type structure and lack of potential to contribute to some

form of experiential learning. The idea of a Virtual Site proved attractive but how it was to be represented and implemented was of major concern. It was recognised that images of the exemplar buildings could be used to symbolize the areas of small, medium and large-scale housing but what of the remainder of content? As the content was generally concerned with design and production of residential buildings, the idea of ‘ virtual offices’ proved acceptable for the educational and technical interface. It was also decided that the materials needed to be integrated and presented holistically. This was achieved by collating a set of materials on a AtimebaseB and these became labeled as Tours, fitting in with the explorationrsite visit metaphor. Materials for these tours included video records and photographic sequences, some with voice over by the virtual tour guide. This virtual environment developed as an organized knowledge base, which is attractive and easily navigable. This approach contributes to learning through pattern recognition and multi-sensory input whilst integrating different areas of knowledge as shown by Paivio w23x. From a cognitive learning viewpoint, students explore real world representations and situations where numerous pathways have been established. The structure of the content is explicit through iconsrheadings and pathways and this is perceived andror consolidated through visual cues. Also, following on from Resnick and Klopfer w24x, and Rogoff w25x, all material is Acontextualised,B encouraging meaningful learning and transfer of that knowledge to real-world events and problem-solving situations. Although the pathways are explicit, knowledge is gained implicitly via exploration of content. Whilst providing organized knowledge and examples, in different media and from applied settings, an environment was created in which students can recognize facts, form concepts, clarify ideas and transform their thinking. A number of writers have written on the learning skills and processes underlying this approach, including Bruner w17x, Bruner et al. w26x, Neves and Anderson w27x.. Using ideas and approaches drawn from Pichert and Anderson w28x, and Rumelhart w29,30x, the project aimed to build or support a realistic ‘schemata’ of Building and Construction knowledge, techniques

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and contexts. This is accomplished through a framework and experiences to promote a mental image; this framework and experiences consisted of: ? ? ? ? ? the overall organization of content; the context ?e.g. The Design Office.; chronological presentations ?the Tours.; access to additional materials ?selected links.; and emphasis on the interrelationship of components.

Users of the site are supported in the learning through: ? activation of prior knowledge; ? examples ?visual and verbal. linking new knowledge with current knowledge structures; ? using a metaphor that relates theory with practice; and ? free exploration of content, so that students can form an information framework more suited to their own learning style preference. The materials incorporated in the site are highly illustrative, incorporating graphics, animation, video clips, time-lapse photography and audio. This is done to promote multi-sensory learning and promote pattern recognition and visual memory, after Paivio w31x. The site also attempted to facilitate learning through a high degree of interaction with real-world examples. This is designed to add interest ?motivation., consolidate learning and facilitate transferability of knowledge to the actual work environments. 3.2. Content design The web site involves the development of interactive multimedia courseware, which can be accessed by construction engineering and technology faculty and students. The courseware focuses on the technologies and processes needed in the construction of medium to high-rise buildings in Hong Kong through Avirtual site visitsB to selected projects. The web site is therefore aimed at undergraduate educational programmes containing courses in construction engineering and technology, and construction management. Knowledge Representation is a key issue in

providing an environment that facilitates concept acquisition and the eventual achievement of expertise, as shown by writers such as Neves and Anderson w27x, Newell and Simon w32x, Chase and Simon w21x, and Chi et al.w22x. An initial meeting of faculty, ?together with two senior students. responsible for teaching in the area of Building and Construction, met to determine the nature and scope of content. Suggestions ranged from simply distributing lecture notes, to organizing materials and experiences similar to that of an apprentice learning on-the-job. The students made valuable contribution by discussing their most satisfying experiences but also indicating perceived areas of overlap material and lack of integration. The approach of the team at City University was then to identify a theme and a series of generic subject areas based on an underlying set of principles. The principles are that the courseware should: ? support teaching learning in construction engineering and technology; ? be relevant to the construction needs of Hong Kong; ? represent developments which are in the forefront of construction technology; and ? be applicable to the work of other institutions in Hong Kong, and also attract a broader international audience.

Fig. 1. Functional model of the web site.

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The theme is a progressive exploration of technology and production processes, from medium-riser short-span construction based on in situ reinforced concrete technology, to high-rise construction based on standardisation, prefabrication and advanced form work systems. Seven generic subject areas were identified to guide the data collection for the courseware development and the subsequent structure and organisation of the web site. These are: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? reinforced concrete technology, the substructure, the structure, the external fabric, the internal elements, design and communication, and construction management.

The multimedia courseware is organised around these generic subject areas and enables faculty and students to access and explore material at various levels to suit specific syllabus topics and courses. The courseware is therefore content-based rather than course specific, thus facilitating updating, general applicability, and flexibility relating to choice of level and course. Fig. 1 shows the functional model representing the manner in which the material was to be accessed and used. A core of information and presentations is shown. Within the core, site visits and tours emphasising construction, prefabrication, manufacturing and assembly processes will normally form the primary point of entry into the system. Users can then branch off to analyse groups of secondary presentations in the areas of laboratory visits, design office visits and production office vis-

Fig. 2. Structure of the web site.

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its, which include contextual and theoretical data. The material is accessed and used through a multimedia format supporting self-learning, didactic and tutorial presentation, assignments and experimentation.

4. Web site structure The Virtual Building & Construction Environment w2x forms part of the CIVCAL w1x system of linked web sites. This relationship is shown in Fig. 2, which illustrates the organisation of the components of the City University web site. Entry to the CIVCAL homepage at A in Fig. 2 provides access to all the four university web-sites. The Virtual Building & Construction Environment can also be ac-

cessed independently at its own introductory homepage B or via the CityU Homepage at C. From this position, the user then moves into the virtual environment at D, represented initially by a series of screen graphics. These are in fact icons providing the starting point for exploration of the various presentations in the web site. Fig. 3 is an illustration of the screen containing these graphics. There are nine presentations represented on the screen at D. These are three Site Visits, three Virtual Tours, a Production Office, a Design Office, and Other Projects. The Site Visits and Virtual Tours ?Fig. 4. are based on three building case studies of increasing complexity. The Production and Design Offices contain generic contextual and theoretical material, laboratory experiments, and drawings. The presentation: Other Projects provides an internal link to newly added project

Fig. 3. The virtual building & construction environment: opening graphics.

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Fig. 4. Opening page of a Virtual Tour.

databases. Activating the screen icons at D will take the user into any of these presentations. The virtual environment, consisting of these nine presentations, is explored from D via a total of nine corresponding title pages, each combining screen graphics and title. Introductory pages follow, with menus, and the teachingrlearning experience begins at this point. A typical introductoryrmenu page is illustrated at Fig. 5. The userrcomputer interface is organised in terms of a methodology that takes into account the underlying structure of the content, the diverse nature of the materials to be presented together with considerations for good web site design. Material coherence and navigation follow the underlying organisation of content in the virtual offices and over the site examples. The Virtual Tour materials are time-based video

with voice over and time-lapse photography. These are provided to give a holistic view of the interrelationship of construction processes. Elsewhere, the site consists of menus, icons, direct linkages, and downloading facilities ?in the case of drawings.. Information is presented in photographic, video, graphical, animation and textual forms.

5. Conclusion The Virtual Building & Construction Environment demonstrates the capabilities of the World Wide Web as a means of delivering a AvirtualB environment using multimedia for teachingrlearning in construction engineering and technology. The main components of the environment are a series of site

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Fig. 5. A typical introductoryrmenu page.

visits, virtual tours, and virtual design and production offices based on multimedia content obtained from three construction sites. The construction sites represent and illustrate construction of increasing complexity, to suit the learning progression. But rigorous design is at least as important as implementation. The underlying conceptual and educational framework received as much attention as the construction and assembly of the components. Within the overall design, the educational ‘underpinning’ is seen as the most important factor contributing to the intended success of the educational materials. In meeting educational objectives, the creation of such a product therefore requires a substantial multidisciplinary team effort, including academics and educational experts, as well as computing specialists, graphic designers, and web programmers. Design

and data collection, including initial concept mapping, instructional design development, and content design, accounted for approximately half of City University’s total estimated time of 500 days assigned to CIVCAL, and half of City University’s total grant allocation of just over HK$1 million from CIVCAL. So far, two questionnaire evaluations of the web site, whilst still under construction, have been carried out by two groups of students registered on construction technology courses in a BSc Programme in Construction Engineering and Management. The two groups ?one of 100 students in their first year of study, and one of 35 students in their third year of study. reported that most of them found the web site provided a valuable insight into a construction site, and that the material was informative and relevant.

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B. Wilkins, J. Barrettr Automation in Construction 10 (2000) 169–179 w5x P. Treuer, L. Belote, Current applications of technology to promote student involvement and learning, New Directions for Student Services 781997, pp. 17–30. w6x D. Geyer, M. Costa, Strategic mapping of technology-based delivery modes in higher education, International Conference on Multimedia and Telecommunications Management, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, 1998. w7x A. Jain, K. Kensk, D. Noble, An interactive web-based teaching tool for simplified 3D analysis of solar rhythms, Automation in Construction 8 ?2. ?1998. 181–194. w8x A. Barron, Designing web-based training, British Educational Communications and Technology Agency 29 ?4. ?1998. 355–370. w9x T. Kilby, http:rrwww.filename.comr. http:rrwwwrwebbasedinstruction.comr. w10x V. Miranda, T. Park, Representation of architectural concepts in the study of precedents: a concept-learning system, Automation in Construction 8 ?1. ?1998. 99–106. w11x K. Martini, Digitial imaging and the web in teaching structures: a rigorous visual approach, ARCADIA 1996 Proceedings: Design, Computation, Collaboration, Reasoning and Pedagogy, ARCADIA, Tucson, 1996, pp. 215–225. http:rrurban.arch.virginia.EDUr ; km6erttir tti-summaryr. w12x I.M.H. Saad, D.E. Hancher, Multimedia for project management: project navigator, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management ?1998. 82–89, February. w13x U. Neisser, Cognitive Psychology, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1967. w14x C.M. Reigeluth, Instructional design theories and models: an overview of their current status, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NG, 1983. w15x M.W. Eysenck, M.K. Keane, Cognitive psychology: A Student’s Handbook, Erlbaum, Hove, UK, 1990. w16x R.M. Mayer, Cognition and instruction: their historic meeting within educational psychology, Journal of Educational Psychology 84 ?1992. 405–412. w17x J.S. Bruner, Toward a theory of instruction, Norton, New York, 1966. w18x M. Minsky, A framework for representing knowledge, in: P.H. Winston ?Ed.., The Psychology of Computer Vision, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975. w19x R.C. Schank, R.P. Abelson, Scripts, Plans, Goals and Understanding, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1977. w20x J.R. Anderson, The Architecture of Cognition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1983. w21x W.G. Chase, H.A. Simon, Perception in chess, Cognitive Psychology 4 ?1973. 55–81. w22x M.T.H. Chi, R. Glaser, M. Farr, The Nature of Expertise, 1988, Hillsdale, JN. w23x A. Paivio, Imagery and Verbal Processes, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1971. w24x L.B. Resnick, L.E. Klopfer, Toward the Thinking Curriculum: Current Cognitive Research, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Washington, DC, 1989. w25x B. Rogoff, Apprenticeship in Thinking: Cognitive Development in Social Context, Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1990.

Videos, time-lapse sequences and animations were found to be the most attractive and useful media in presenting construction processes Evaluation will continue and in the project there are a number of educational aspects that are still currently being addressed. These include: ? continuing on-line testing and performance feedback; ? interpersonal communications; ? problem-solving challenges; ? a combined cognitive map and navigation instrument; and ? supplementary instructional materials. The authors’ current and planned work extends some of the knowledge engineering concepts and principles that underlie the Virtual Building & Construction Environment, to the development of interactive on-line environments for professional use. This work involves the coordinated application of computer-mediated communication systems, multimedia project databases, and knowledge engineering methodologies to decision-making in the early stages of the architectural design process.

Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank all the participants in the larger CIVCAL project for the opportunity to exchange ideas and participate in a project having potential to contribute to the teaching of the discipline in Hong Kong Universities. Thanks also to the various construction contractors in Hong Kong who have provided raw content and access to construction sites. We also wish to acknowledge that the work was substantially funded by a Teaching Development Grant awarded by the University Grants Council ?UGC. in Hong Kong.

References
w1x http:rrcivcal.media.hku.hkr w2x http:rrwww.cityu.edu.hkrCIVCALr w3x R. Wong, The 15 Most Outstanding Projects in Hong Kong, China Trend Building Press, Hong Kong, 1998. w4x B. Hall, http:rrwww.brandonhall.comr.

B. Wilkins, J. Barrettr Automation in Construction 10 (2000) 169–179 w26x J.S. Bruner, J.J. Goodnow, G.A. Austin, A Study of Thinking, 1956, New York. w27x D.M. Neves, J.R. Anderson, Knowledge compilation: mechanisms for the automatization of cognitive skills, in: J.R. Anderson ?Ed.., Cognitive Skills and their Acquisition, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1981, pp. 86–102. w28x J.W. Pichert, R.C. Anderson, Taking different perspectives on a story, Journal of Educational Psychology 69 ?1977. 309–315. w29x D.E. Rumelhart, Notes on a schema for stories, in: D.G. Bobrow, A.M. Collins ?Eds.., Representation and Under-

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standing: Studies in Cognitive Science, Academic Press, New York, 1975, pp. 268–281. w30x D.E. Rumelhart, Understanding understanding, in: E. Kessen, A. Ortony, F. Crail ?Eds.., Memoirs, Thoughts, and Emotions: Essays in Honor of George Mandler, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1991, pp. 257–265. w31x A. Paivio, Mental Representations: A Duel Coding Approach, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 1986. w32x A. Newell, H.A. Simon, Human Problem Solving, PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1972.


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