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高三老师和学生都必须知道的英语高考高频考点


英语高考高频考点 一,、词语的深层用法: Ⅰ.★★注意 when 作并列连词表“就在这时”之意的句型: was/were going/about to do sth + when 从句(一般过去时)准备/正准备做某事,这时。。。 was/were on the point of doing sth + when 从句(一般过去时)正准备做某事,这时。。。 had just done sth + when 从句(一般过去时)刚刚做完某事,正在这时。。。 was/were doing sth + when 从句(一般过去时)正在做某事,这时。。。 was/were +表状态的介词短语 + when 从句(一般过去时)正在做某事,这时。。。 I was wandering in the street when suddenly a dog bit me. I was going to go out when a man came to visit me.=I was about to go out when a man came to visit me.=I was on the point of going out when a man came to visit me. I had just got up when a man came to visit me Chuck was on a flight across the Pacific Ocean when suddenly his plane crashed. Ⅱ.注意 while 作“虽然;尽管”之意引导让步状语从句、作并列连词是“而,然而”之意。 While(虽然,尽管) the Internet is of great help, I don’t think it’s a good idea to spend too much time on it. (2008) 注意: while 作“虽然;尽管”之意时引导的让步状语从句必须放在句首。★★ Some people waste food while(而,然而) others haven’t enough. 注意:while 做“而,然而”之意时为并列连词,不放句首,表示一种鲜明的对比,主语往往不是同一人。 while 的第一意义是“在。。。期间”,引导时间状语从句通常放句尾不用标点与主句隔开,也可放句首 但此时必须用标点与主句隔开。 III。注意 before 有时翻译成“…才…,不到…就,趁…就,还没来得及…就”. 如: We had sailed four days and four nights before we saw land. We hadn’t run a mile before he felt tired. Please write it down before you forget it. Before I could explain, she had got very angry。“还没来得及…就”常和情态动词连用。 IV.注意以下词语的第二第三或更多词义: while ①当。。。时候,在。。。期间②然而,而③虽然,尽管 when ①当。。。时候②就在这时 ★③既然,倘若 eg: How can you expect to learn anything when you never listen in class? park ①n 公园②v 停放(车辆)③v 寄存,存放 ④v 让某人在某处坐、站
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Eg: There are often sofas in a clothing store for women to park their husbands, children or boyfriends. walk ①n 散步②v 步行③v 护送某人,陪某人走 Eg: Are you going to walk me home? rush ①冲,跑②急忙送。。。去。。。 When the injured were rushed to the hospital, they came to life. touch ①触摸②触动 move ①搬迁,移动②感动 contribute to ①为。。。作贡献②导致 eg: Smoking contributes to heart disease and high pressure. cover①盖,覆盖②占据(面积)③走…路程④报道 The journalist covered a long distance to the accident site to make the event covered. present 一词具有多种词性和意义,请区分不同用法: I’m just going out to get some presents for my sisters. (n.礼物) How many people were present at the meeting?(adj.在场的) They presented flowers to their teacher.(v.赠送) He presented his views and then sat down.(v.提出) Those present at the meeting(出席会议的) were worried about the present financial situation. 目前的金融形 ( 势。 present, adj.目前的,现在的) raise ①举起,提高②募集(捐款) interest ①兴趣②利益③利息 The director claimed at the meeting, “The loan from our workers was made at 6 percent interest; after all, we will at all times put the interests of you all first.” concrete ①具体的②混凝土

三、与自己的主观认为相悖的表达形式。 I.通常,分词用现在分词还是用过去分词要由句子主语与分词的主被动关系而定,但属于“be + 过去 分词 + 介词”的短语动词作非谓语时只需去掉 be 而不需考虑与句子主语的主被动关系!!!这些短语 动词常见的是: dressed in 穿着 be seated behind/in /on…坐在 be hidden behind/in…躲藏在 be lost in be thought 处于沉思中 be drunk 喝醉 be faced with 面对 be located/situated in/on/between 位于 be determined to 下定决心 be concerned about 担心 be based on 建立在。。。基础上 be interested in 对。 。 。 感兴趣 be pleased with 对。 。 。 满意 be tired of 对。 。 。 厌倦 be devoted to 潜心于 be addicted to 沉溺于★★★
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Dressed in a white uniform, he looks more like a cook than a doctor. The sign reads as follows . 这牌子告示如下。 The plan worked out successfully.

(2005)

This group consists of 10 men.

II.通常,动词前的名词或代词是动作的承受者时,相应的动词要用被动形式,但下列情况用主动形 式表达被动意思:★★★ 1.系动词 feel,look,smell,taste,prove; The fish smells good. 鱼闻起来香。How sweet the music sounds ! 这音乐听起来多优美啊! Good medicine tastes bitter to the mouth .良药苦口。 2.某些动词说明主语的某种特性时。如 cut,read,sell,wear,write,wash, clean 等词带状语修饰语 easily, well, smoothly 等副词或 open,lock,stand 与 won’t(过去式 wouldn’t)连用时。 This kind of cloth washes easily.这种布易洗。My pen writes smoothly.我的钢笔写起来很流畅。 The book sells well . 这本书销路很好。 The door won’t open . 这扇门就是打不开。

The door won’t lock. 门锁不上。These novels won’t sell well.这些小说不畅销。 The table won’t stand up. 这桌子放不稳。The engine won’t start. 车子发不动。 The door wouldn’t open no matter how hard Grandma pushed. 3.表示“发生、进行”的不及物动词和短语。如 happen、 break out、take place、come about, come true, occur, run out, give out(耗尽) last, turn out 等动词。My money ran out. 4.be worth doing 用主动形式表示被动含义。 5.want, require, need 后面的动名词用主动表示被动含义。 6.以下不定式中用主动形式表达被动意义: ①在“be + 形容词 + to do”中,不定式的逻辑宾语是句子的主语,用主动代被动。简单说,就是系表 结构后的不定式。 He is easy to get along with. The question is easy to answer. The girl isn’t easy to get along with. This book is too expensive to buy. ②句子中有不定式动作的发出者时。 I have a lot of homework to do. He gave me a book to read. A lot of people find modern art very hard to understand. The sentence is difficult to understand. This kind of water isn’t fit to drink. The problem is difficult to work out.

I found it very difficult to learn English well. ③there be 句型中的不定式。 There is not enough food to eat. There is no chair to sit on.

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④和疑问词连用的不定式。 My question is what to do with it. I’ve worked with children before, so I know what to expect in my new job. ⑤固定用法:be to blame(将受谴责),be to let(将出租)为主动形式表被动。 He is to blame for the broken window. This house is to let. III.绝大多数情况下,to 是不定式符号,后接动词原形,但下列短语中的 to 为介词,后接动词时要 用-ing 形式!!!★★★ pay attention to 注意; look forward to 盼望; be devoted to, devote oneself to 潜心于; be addicted to 沉 溺于 contribute to,make contributions to 为。。。作贡献; be/get/become used/accustomed to 习惯于 get down to 着手(做);turn to 转向(做);lead to 导致;come to 谈及;object to 反对; stick to 坚持; adapt to 调整以适应; adjust to 调节以适应; react to 对。。。作出反应; respond to 回应; reply to 答复; see to 确保; submit to 屈服于; refer to 提及; add to 增加; key to 。。。的关键;

四、深层语法 注意下面这些容易淡忘的硬性法则,有些甚至是打破常规的特殊规定,做题时千万千万别忘了: 1. 冠词 ① 表示众多同类事物中的一个时名词即使带了修饰语也用不定冠词。★★

Eg: While he was investigating ways to improve the telescope, Newton made a discovery which completely changed man’s understanding of color. ② 表示世界上独一无二的事物的名词带上修饰语后改用不定冠词。★★ Eg: When the spaceship traveled above, a new-looking earth appeared before us, an earth that we had never seen before. ② 元音因素(注意:不是字母)开头的单词前用 an,反之,辅音因素开头的单词前用 a. ★

Eg: a university, a useful book, a “u”, an “e/f/h/i/l/m/n/o/r/s/x”, an interesting story, an orange, an hour, an honest boy, an 800-metre bridge. ④序数词前用不定冠词表示“又一”“再一”之意 Eg: My teacher asked me to copy the article a second time. ⑤形容词最高级前用不定冠词表示“极其”之意。

2.代词、形容词和副词 ① enough 修饰形容词或副词时要后置;形容词修饰不定代词时要后置。

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Although she did not know Boston well, she made her way easily enough to the Home Circle Building. (2006) ②能够修饰比较级的程度副词:。。。一点点,稍微:a little, a bit, slightly, any; 。。。得多:many, much, a lot, a great deal, far, by far, greatly; 甚至更。。。:even,all the, still, yet. ③形容词可以作状语。★★★ United, we can make it. He fell to the ground, dead.

Happy and excited,the boys were shouting and singing. Tom returned home, tired but sound. I stood there still, full of fear. ④注意几组特殊副词的意义及用法差别: a.原意和抽象比喻意义上的差别,即前者用于可测量的较具体的事物,后者用于一种难以测量的抽象的 比喻义.deeps 深地/deeply 深深地; wide 宽大地/widely 广泛地; near 近地/nearly 很接近地,几乎; close 近 地/closely 密切地; most 极其/mostly 主要地; ★★ The player can jump really high, so we all speak highly of him. Most of them, who were mostly friends of the manager, were saved in the fire. Only when December draws near do I realize that it’s nearly Christmas. b.有无-ly 意义大不同:dead 完全地,绝对地/deadly 极其地; pretty 相当/prettily 漂亮地; late 迟地/lately 最近; hard 努力地/hardly 几乎不; He works hard in school while his brother hardly ever reads a book.

3. 情态动词和系动词 I.★情态动词有以下特别用法: ①can 可表示“有时候会”。 ★ Eg: The monkeys look sweet, but they can be very naughty. The World Wide Web is sometimes jokingly called the world wide wait because it can be very slow. ②must 可表示“硬要,偏偏”。 Eg: ---How old are you, madam? ----If you must know, I’m twice my son’s age.

③shall 可用于一、三人称疑问句表示征求对方的意见或向对方请示。★★ Eg: ---Shall he come to see you? ---I’d rather he didn’t. Shall 也可用于二、三人称陈述句中表示命令、警告、允诺、威胁或法规。★★★ Eg: ---What does the sign over here read? ----No person shall smoke or carry a lighted cigarette, cigar or pipe in this area. ④should 可表示“按理说应该”。 ★★
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Eg: ---When can I call for my TV set? ----It should be ready this afternoon. should 也可表示说话人对某事感到意外、惊异、不能理解等,译作“竟然;居然”。 Eg: You can’t imagine that a well-behaved gentleman should be so rude to a lady. ⑤ will 可表示现在经常或习惯性的行为,译作“常常”。过去的习惯性行为用 would. Eg: He will go to the park every day after supper. will 还可表示即时决定。★ Eg:---John was badly injured in the accident yesterday and she was sent to hospital. ---Oh, really? I didn’t know. I will visit her. ----Did you tell him the good news? ----Oh, no. I forgot. I will call him now. ⑥must have done 只用于肯定句;can’t have done;may/might have done 不用于疑问句。★ II.系动词有以下硬性规定: ① ② go 多与负面意思的形容词连用;还特别用于可立即逆转的颜色变化,如交通灯。 turn 用于表示达到某一年龄或超过某一时间。还可表“成为”,此时后面直接接名词,即名词前

不能加任何冠词. ★ ③ ④ make 后接名词表示具有成为某种人的潜质。如:He can make a good teacher。 感观动词既可作系动词也可作实义动词,应注意从语义上来区别和正确使用。

When you are ill, you can’t taste properly. Even your favorite food tastes bad. They looked sadly at the master, because the maser himself looked sad. We don’t care if a hunting dog smells badly, but we really don’t want him to smell bad.

4.非谓语动词: ①下列动词接动词不定式作宾语补足语是必须省略 to, 但在被动句中不可省, V + sb do sth: look at, 即 see, watch, notice, observe; have, let, make; listen to, hear; feel. 简记:五“看”三“使”两“听” 一“感

觉”。to 在句中像妖怪,主动句里它走开,被动句里它回来。★★★ ②绝大多数动词后接不定式作宾语,但有些动词只能接 V-ing 作宾语,即 V+ V-ing,常见的这些动词 是:consider, suggest/advise, look forward to; excuse/pardon; admit; delay(put off); fancy; avoid; miss; keep; practise; deny; finish; enjoy/appreciate; imagine; mind; allow/permit; escape; resist; forbid; risk. 词义口诀:考虑建议盼原谅,承认推迟没得想,避免错过保持练,否认完成和欣赏,想像介意准逃亡, 抵制禁止要冒险。★★★ ③too…to 结构中如果 too 后接的是表情绪感受的形容词则此结构是肯定意义。 前还常加上 only, all, too but, just, simply 等副词,意思不变,因为这些词加上 too 后与 very 同义。★
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④下列动词不能接不定式的复合结构 sb to do sth: hope, suggest, demand, welcome, arrange, agree. ★ ⑤ On/Upon + V-ing 或 on + one’s + n 可表示“一。。。就。。。”。(接名词时要加上 one’s) ★

On arriving/his arrival in Shanghai, he called his friends. Upon his death the man left all his money to his child. ⑥being done 一般为分词,表示“正被。。。”,即既表被动又表进行,但在介词和只能接 V-ing 的 动词后它是动名词,表示“被。。。”,只表被动不表进行!!!★★★ ⑦having done 和 having been done 一般不作定语。★★★ ⑧放在句首的目的状语只能用不定式, 并且要用逗号与后面隔开,但作目的状语的不定式放句尾时 不用逗号隔开。★★★ ⑨there be 句型的非谓语形式 作主语时可用 there being 也可用 there to be, 但用 for 引出时则用 there to be It is not uncommon for there to be problems of communication between old and young. 作宾语时通常用 there to be,但在介词和要求接 V-ing 作宾语的动词后用 there being。 Chinese hate there to be long queues everywhere. Nobody told me about there being a meeting yesterday. I have no objection to there being a meeting here. 作状语时多用 there being。但 too…to…句型中则用 there to be. There being no bus, we have to go home on foot. There having been no rain for a long time, the ground was very dry. It’s too early for there to be anybody on the road. 作定语 This is the fastest train there is to Nanking.这是现有的去南京的最快的火车。 I must make full use of the time there is left to me and do as much as I can for the people.

5.名词性从句: ①名词性从句必须用陈述句语序. ★★★ ②宾语从句中主句为一般过去时时,从句必须用过去的某种时态(客观真理除外)。★★★

6.定语从句: ①关系代词 that 和 which 在很多情况下可以互换,但下列情况只用 that: a.先行词是 all ,everything, nothing, anything, something, much, little, none 等不定代词时 All that can be done has been done.
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Do you have anything that you don’t understand ? There is little that can be believed about it . The book doesn’t say much that amuses children. b.先行词被 any, some, no, much, few, little, every, all, very, only, last 修饰时 I’ve read all the books that you lent me. No sample that we nave received is satisfactory. Please send us any information that you have about the subject. He is the only person that was present at the time. c.先行词被形容词最高级或序数词修饰或是形容词最高级或序数词时 Hamburg is the most beautiful city that I’ve ever seen. This is the best TV that is made in China. The first museum that he visited in China was the History Museum. This is the first/second/last book (that) he has read. d.先行词中既有人又有事物时 The famous writer and his works that the radio broadcast have aroused great interest among the students. A victim is a person, animal or thing that suffers pain, death, harm, etc. e.关系代词在从句中作表语,或先行词指物且在主句中作表语时 My hometown is no longer the place that it used to be. He is no longer the man that he used to be. He didn’t become the kind of person that his father wanted him to be. It is a song that is very popular. It is a book that will help you a lot. f.由 which 和 who 开头的问句中(避免重复) Which is the subject (that) you are going to learn next term? Who is the man that came to see you just now? Who that you have ever seen can do it better? Who that you are talking to is the young fellow. 记忆口诀:the very, the only; the same, no, any; 两项并列人与物;不定、序数、最高级。(“不定”指 不定代词,但指人的 one / ones / anyone/those/he 除外。)★★★ ③ 关系代词不用 that,而用 which,who,whom 的情况:

a.在非限制性定语从句中,指事物用 which,指人用 who 或 whom。 He made the same mistakes again, which made his parents very angry.
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Yesterday I bought a dictionary, which cost me more than 100 yuan. Mr. Smith, who gave a talk several months ago, will come again. My uncle has come back from abroad, whom I haven’t met for along time. His dog, which was very old now, became ill and died. b.紧跟在介词后面,指事物用 which,指人用 whom。 Her bag, in which she put all her money, has been stolen. This is the ring on which she spent 1000 dollars. Xiao Wang, with whom I went to the concert, enjoy it very much. Which is the car, the owner of which you know? ④ 关系代词指人时只能用 who 而不用 that 的情况:

先行词是 one / ones / anyone/those/he 时 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? One who has nothing to fear for oneself dares to tell the truth. The ones who are often late should be punished Don’t tell anyone about the news who oughtn’t to know it. Anyone who fails to finish the task given should be criticized. Anyone who breaks the law is punished. Those who break the law are punished. Those who want to go to the Great Wall sign up here. He who has not been to the Great Wall is not a true man. He who laughs last laughs best. He who breaks the law is punished.

④关系代词只能用 as 的情况: a.固定句型: 当先行词有 same 或 such/so 修饰时关系代词常用 as(不用 that). as 充当宾语或表语. 即:the same…as; such…as; so…as ★★★ ? ? ? ? ? I shall do it in the same way as you did. I want to buy such a book as you have. He is so good a teacher as we all like. He is not the same man as he was. 比较:He is not the man that he used to be.

b.代替整个句子,意为“正如”时 c.代替整个句子放在句首时 ⑤当前后构成因果关系时, 关系代词代替整个句子只能用 which
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? ?

He failed in the exam, which made his mother very angry. His dog died, which made him very sad.

7.状语从句: ①时间状语从句和条件状语从句中用一般现在时代替一般将来时★★★ Eg: We will go to the park if it doesn’t rain tomorrow. Don’t/You can’t get off the bus until it stops. ②时间状语从句、条件状语从句和方式状语从句中,如果从句的主语与主句的主语相同或主句的 主语是 it,且从句谓语中含有 be 动词,可以将主语和 be 动词省略。★★★ While (he was) still a student, she played roles in many plays.(但 when he was a student 不这么省。 此时就用 while still 替代) Please change the verb form if/when necessary. Don’t speak until asked to. Generally speaking ,when taken to the directions, this medicine has no side effect. When completed, the museum will be open to the public next year. The research is so designed that once begun nothing can be done to change it. If not treated, the deadly disease could spread very fast and cause plenty of deaths. This is an illness that can result in total blindness if left untreated. Once a teacher, he now works in a government office. Work hard when young, or you’ll regret. He looked everywhere as if in search of something. While walking along the street, I heard my name called. The exhibition is more interesting than (it was) expected. He opened his lips as if (he were) to speak. ③由 as, although, though 引导的让步状语从句结构: although/while 不倒装, although 多用于句首,while 必须放在句首;though 可倒装可不倒装;as/that 必须倒装. ★★★ a.表语的倒装:(表语为名词时名词前不可加冠词!!!)★★ While /Though/ Although he is a child, he knows a lot.→ Child as he is, he knows a lot. Tired as/though/that he was, he still went on with his work. b.状语的倒装:(这时不可在状语之前加 very 修饰语!!!)★
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While /Though/ Although Bruce walked very fast, he still couldn’t catch up with me.→ Fast as/though/that Bruce walked, he still couldn’t catch up with me. While/Though/Although I admire him as a writer very much, I do not like him as a man. → Much as/though/that I admire him as a writer, I do not like him as a man. Carefully as/though/that he did the work, he made a mistake. c.谓语动词的倒装: Try as/though/that he might, he didn’t pass the exam. Hate him as/though/that we may, we must admit his greatness. ④下列词也可以直接引导状语从句:the moment; the minute; the instant; the second; the time; immediately/instantly/directly(以上均为“一...就...” ) the week/year; all the time; any/every/each time; the first/last time; by the time; Eg: My sister came directly she got my message. Every time I catch a cold, I have a pain in my back. The first time I climbed onto the wall, I felt nervous. ⑤ since 句型中如果从句谓语是延续性的,则它所表示的时间从该动作或状态结束时算起! It is 3 years since I smoked( gave up smoking 自从我戒烟以来. )我戒烟 3 年了。 It is 5 years since he was a soldier.他退伍 5 年了。 I have never seen him since he was ill.他病愈以来我还没见过他。 It has been 5 years since he lived here.到现在为止他有 5 年没住这里了。

8.主谓一致: ①由 no…and no…,each…and each…,every…and every…,many a …and many a…等构成的复合主语 谓语动词用单数。★★ Every boy and every girl has the right to get education. ②主语后面带有 as well as, with, together with, along with, including, in addition to, besides, except, but, rather than 等词连接的名词,谓语动词的数由这些词前的主语决定. ★★★ The professor together with a number of students was doing experiments in chemistry in the lab at that time. ③more than one 和 many a 后接名词单数,谓语动词用单数。 More than one language is taught in this school. ④“kind(s)/pair(s)/quantity(ies)/amount(s) of + 名词”结构后谓语动词的数由 kind(s)/pair(s)/quantity(ies)/amount(s)本身的单复数决定。★ Large amounts of money are used on the Hope Project.
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Large quantities of information have been offered since the organization was built. This kind of books sells well. ⑤名词 + of this kind 作主语时谓语动词由名词的单复数决定。 Books of this kind sell well。

9.虚拟语气: ①suggest“表明、暗示”用陈述语气,“建议”用虚拟语气;insist“坚持认为”用陈述语气,“坚决要求”用 虚拟语气。(做题时用“坚决要求”之意代进去讲得通就用虚拟语气,否则用陈述语气)★★★ Mary suggested we visit the museum once more, which suggested she loved the Chinese culture very much. Jane’s pale face suggested that she was ill, and her parents suggested that she have a medical examination. He insisted that he was really very tired and that he be allowed to have a rest. All the doctors in the hospital insisted (that) he was badly wounded and that he be operated on at once. He insisted that he had done nothing wrong and be free. He insisted that he was ill and be sent to hospital at once. ②在名词性从句中,表示要求、命令、建议、请求的词后的名词性从句要用虚拟语气,形式为 should + V 原形,should 可以省略。常见的这类词是:insist, order, command, advise(动词),advice(名词), suggest(动词),suggestion(名词),propose(动词),proposal(名词),demand,desire,require,request。 记忆口诀:一个“坚决(要求)”,两个“命令”,三个“建议”,四个“请求”。 ★★【还有 urge(主张), recommend(推荐),不常用】 The king ordered that the prisoners be killed the next day. They requested that we (should) send them to work there. My demand is that she (should) come to see me once a week. The order came that the work should be finished two days ahead of time. She accepted their proposal that she should be operated on. ③It is (about / high) time that sb did 或 should do sth.(是某人该做某事的时候了) 句型中 should 不可省略!!!★★★ ④(How) I wish that sb, If only sb, as if/though sb 后对将来的虚拟为 would/could/might + V 原形句型中 动词原形前不能用 should!!! ⑤would rather 后的虚拟语气只有两种形式:和过去相反用现在完成时,和现在或将来事实相反用一般 过去时. ★★ I’d rather you went home now and came again tomorrow.

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⑥It’s necessary /strange/ natural/advisable/possible /impossible/important/essential/requested/demanded/ordered/a pity/a shame + that-Clause 从句中的 动词要用虚拟,形式为(should)+动词原形 It is important that we ( should ) master a foreign language .. It is strange that she (should) refuse to come to the party. It’s necessary that we (should) study hard. It’s ordered that we (should) go home at once. 10.动词时态 I。一般现在时 ①某些表示起始的动词,可用一般现在时表示按规定、计划或安排要发生的动作(如表示车、船、飞 机等按时间表发生的动作),这类动词有:be, go, come, start, depart, arrive, begin, leave 等。 The train leaves at 4:30 pm. The meeting starts this afternoon. ②在时间、条件、让步状语从句中用一般现在时代替一般将来时。 I won’t go swimming if it rains. II.进行时 ①表示根据计划或安排在最近要进行的事情用现在进行时。具有这种语法功能的动词仅限于过渡性动 词,即表示从一个状态或位置转移到另一个状态或位置上去的动词。常用的有;go, come, leave, start, arrive, return 等。 例:They are leaving for Hongkong next month.他们下个月去香港。 My money is running out. I must go to the bank to draw some of my savings out before I’ve none in hand. ②进行时与 always, forever, constantly, continually, still 等连用时表示赞扬、埋怨、厌烦等感情色 彩。 例:John is always coming late. 约翰总是迟到。 Don’t get off the bus until it stops.

Lei Feng was always helping others. You are constantly changing your mind. III.“will + V 原”可以表示即时决定。 ——Did you tell Julia about the result? ——Oh, no. I forgot. I will call her now. ----John was badly injured in the accident yesterday and she was sent to hospital. ----Oh, really? I didn’t know. I will go to visit her. IV.完成时态 ①完成时态可用在下列结构中:
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This(That, It)is(was )the first(second….)time+定语从句: This(That, It)is(was) the only (last)+名词+定语从句; This (This, It)is (was)+形容词最高级+名词+定语从句。 如果主句的谓语动词是一般现在时,从句的谓语动词动词通常用现在完成时; 如果主句谓语动词是一般过去时,从句的谓语动词通常用过去完成时。 例:This is the first time(that )I’ve drunk Californian champagne. 这是我第一次喝加利福尼亚香槟酒。 There was a knock at the door. It was the second time someone had interrupted me that evening. 有人敲门,这是当天晚上第二次有人打扰我了。 ②动词 expect, hope, mean, intend, plan, suppose, wish, want, desire 等用过去完成时, 表示过去的希望, 预期,意图或愿望等没有实现。 例:I had hoped to see more of Shanghai. I had thought you would come tomorrow. I had meant/wanted to help you, but I was too busy at the moment. ----We had expected that you would fix the TV set this week. ----I’m sorry. I had intended to, but I’ve been too busy. 另外一种表示“过去想做而未做成的事”的表达方式是: was / were + to have done sth. 和 intended (expected, hoped, meant, planned, supposed, wished, wanted, desired) + to have done sth. 例: The meeting was to have started at 3 o’clock, but the general manager didn’t turn later. We were to have come yesterday, but we couldn’t. 我们本想昨天来的,但我们来不了。 He planned to have gone abroad. I hoped to have seen her. I would like to have had your help. I intended to have finished my work last night. The enemy expected to have found him. I mean to have told you about it, but I forgot to do so. 我本想告诉你这件事,但我忘掉了。 up until an hour

③过去完成时常用于以下固定句型: (1)hardly / scarcely / barely+过去完成时(倒装形式)+when +过去时 例:Hardly had I arrived when I had a new problem to cope with. 我一到达就有新问题要处理。 (2) no sooner+过去完成时(倒装形式)+than +过去时。
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例:No sooner had the words been spoken than he realized that he should have remained silent. 这话刚说出口,他就意识到他本该保持沉默的。 ④现在完成时用于时间和条件状语从句中表示将来某时先于另一动作完成的动作。 例:Don’t get off the bus until it has stopped. It is widely believed that Zhongnan Subway is to play an important part in our lives, once it has been completed by 2016. I don’t think you should leave the company until you have found another job. 11.特殊句式: ①it 特殊句型: make/think/consider/find/feel it + adj/n + to do sth. like/appreciate/love/hate/dislike it + when/if …喜欢/讨厌★ see to it that…务必/确保。。。★ take it for granted that…认为 。。。理所当然 owe it to sb. that…把。。。归功于。。。 if I can help it,…如果我能做到的话,。。。★ it was + 具体时间 + when 从句(一般过去时)某事发生时,时间是。。。 it is/has been + 一段时间 + since 从句(一般过去时) 自从。。。以来有。。。之久★ it was + 一段时间 + before 从句(一般过去时) 过了多长时间就/才。。。★ it will be + 一段时间 + before 从句(一般现在时)★ 只要过多长时间就。。。;还要过多长时间才。。。 it was long + before 从句(一般过去时) 过了很久才。。。

it wasn’t long + before 从句(一般过去时) 没过多久就。。。 it will be long + before 从句(一般现在时) 将要很久才能。。。

it won’t be long + before 从句(一般现在时) 将不要多久就会。。。 it was not until +从句或时间短语+ that+ 句子 是直到。。。才。。。★ it is + 序数词 + time + 现在完成时 it was + 序数词 + time + 过去完成时 这是某人第几次做某事了★ 那是某人第几次做某事了★

it is (high/about) time + that 从句(一般过去时或 should+动词原形)某人该做某事了 eg: He made it a rule to get up at 6 in the morning and do morning exercises. I hate it when people talk about me behind my back. The teacher hates it when the students wear strange clothes in school. Personally, I dislike it when people talk with their mouths full.
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I would appreciate it if you could come to my birthday party. I like it in the autumn when the weather is clear and bright. See to it that everything is ready. If I can help it, I won’t work late into night. ②常用作独立成分的插入语: 一般而言:generally speaking;坦率地说: frankly speaking; 从。。。判断:judging from; 考虑到: considering, taking…into consideration; 坦白说: tell the truth, to be frank; 肯定地说 to be sure; 确 to 切地说: be exact; 总之: sum up, to conclude; 使事情更糟糕的是: make things/matters worse, to to to even worse, worse still, what’s worse; 况且:what’s more, moreover, besides, in addition; 事实上:in fact/effect/reality, as a matter of fact, in point of fact, actually, really. Considering Tom fit for the office, the boss considered taking him on. ③省略时只能说 I hope/guess/fear not, I’m afraid not.

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