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2007

H I G H E R S C H O O L C E R T I F I C AT E

E X A M I N AT I O N

Mathematics Extension 2

General Instructions ? Reading time – 5 minutes ? Working time – 3 hours ? Write using black or blue pen ? Board-approved calculators may be used ? A table of standard integrals is provided at the back of this paper ? All necessary working should be shown in every question

Total marks – 120 ? Attempt Questions 1–8 ? All questions are of equal value

412

BLANK PAGE

– 2 –

Total marks – 120 Attempt Questions 1–8 All questions are of equal value Answer each question in a SEPARATE writing booklet. Extra writing booklets are available.

Marks Question 1 (15 marks) Use a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(a)

?

1 .

Find ? dx

? 9 ? 4x2

2

(b)

? 2 2 Find ? tan

x sec

x dx .

?

2

(c)

? Evaluate ? x cos x dx

. ?0

π

3

(d)

?4 Evaluate ? ?0

3

x 1 ?

x

dx .

4

(e)

It can be shown that 2 1

x 3 +

x 2 +

x +

=

1

x +

1

?

x x 2 +

1

+

. (Do NOT prove this.)

x 2 +

1

1

4

? 2 dx . Use this result to evaluate

? 3 2 ?1 x +

x +

x +

1

2

2

– 3 –

Marks Question 2 (15 marks) Use a SEPARATE writing booklet. Let z = 4 + i and w = z . Find, in the form x + iy , (i) w (ii) w – z (iii) z . w 1 1 1

(a)

(b)

(i)

Write 1 + i in the form r (cos θ + i sin θ ) .

2 3

(ii) Hence, or otherwise, find (1 + i )17 in the form a + ib , where a and b are integers.

(c)

The point P on the Argand diagram represents the complex number z , where z satisfies 1 1 + =1. z z Give a geometrical description of the locus of P as z varies.

3

Question 2 continues on page 5

– 4 –

Marks Question 2 (continued)

(d) Q (z2 )

R (a )

O

P (z1 ) The points P, Q and R on the Argand diagram represent the complex numbers z1, z2 and a respectively. The triangles OPR and OQR are equilateral with unit sides, so z1 = z2 = a = 1. Let ω = cos

π π + i sin . 3 3

1 1 2

(i) Explain why z 2 = ω a . (ii) Show that z1 z 2 = a2. (iii) Show that z1 and z 2 are the roots of z2 – az + a2 = 0.

End of Question 2

– 5 –

Marks Question 3 (15 marks) Use a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(a)

y

(–1, 1)

(1, 1)

O

x

(–2, –2)

The diagram shows the graph of y = ? ( x ) . The line y = x is an asymptote. Draw separate one-third page sketches of the graphs of the following: (i) (ii) (iii)

? (? x ?( x

1

)

2 2

? (x) ? x .

(b)

The zeros of x3 – 5x + 3 are α, β and γ . Find a cubic polynomial with integer coefficients whose zeros are 2α, 2β and 2γ .

2

Question 3 continues on page 7

– 6 –

Marks Question 3 (continued)

(c)

y

loge x y= x

4

O

1

e

x

Use the method of cylindrical shells to find the volume of the solid formed when the shaded region bounded by y = 0, y = is rotated about the y-axis. loge x , x = 1 and x = e x

(d)

F

N

θ

O r P

mg A particle P of mass m undergoes uniform circular motion with angular velocity ω in a horizontal circle of radius r about O. It is acted on by the force due to gravity, mg, a force F directed at an angle θ above the horizontal and a force N which is perpendicular to F , as shown in the diagram. (i) By resolving forces horizontally and vertically, show that N = mg cos θ – mrω 2 sin θ . (ii) For what values of ω is N > 0? 1 3

End of Question 3 – 7 –

Marks Question 4 (15 marks) Use a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(a)

2

A

L

P

B M

Q

Two circles intersect at A and B. The lines LM and PQ pass through B, with L and P on one circle and M and Q on the other circle, as shown in the diagram. Copy or trace this diagram into your writing booklet. Show that ∠ LAM = ∠ PAQ .

(b)

(i)

Show that sin 3θ = 3sin θ cos2 θ – sin3 θ . 2π ? π? ? ? Show that 4 sin θ sin ? θ + ? sin ? θ + ? = sin 3θ . ? ? 3? 3 ?

2

(ii)

2

(iii)

π? 2π ? ? ? Write down the maximum value of sin θ sin ? θ + ? sin ? θ + ?. ? ? ? 3 3 ?

1

Question 4 continues on page 9

– 8 –

Marks Question 4 (continued) (c) 1 O y = lo 1 ge x P S y 3

R

e x

Q

The base of a solid is the region bounded by the curve y = loge x , the x-axis and the lines x = 1 and x = e, as shown in the diagram. Vertical cross-sections taken through this solid in a direction parallel to the x-axis are squares. A typical cross-section, PQRS, is shown. Find the volume of the solid.

(d)

The polynomial P ( x) = x3 + qx2 + rx + s has real coefficients. It has three distinct zeros, α, –α and β. (i) (ii) Prove that qr = s . The polynomial does not have three real zeros. Show that two of the zeros are purely imaginary. (A number is purely imaginary if it is of the form iy, with y real and y ≠ 0.) 3 2

End of Question 4

– 9 –

Marks Question 5 (15 marks) Use a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(a)

A bag contains 12 red marbles and 12 yellow marbles. Six marbles are selected at random without replacement. (i) Calculate the probability that exactly three of the selected marbles are red. Give your answer correct to two decimal places. (ii) Hence, or otherwise, calculate the probability that more than three of the selected marbles are red. Give your answer correct to two decimal places. 1

2

(b)

y

P T O Q x

The points at P ( x1, y1 ) and Q ( x2, y2 ) lie on the same branch of the hyperbola x 2 a 2 ? y2 b2 = 1.

The tangents at P and Q meet at T ( x0 , y0 ) . (i) Show that the equation of the tangent at P is xx1 a 2 ? yy1 b2 = 1. xx0

2 a

2 ? yy0 b2 = 1.

(ii) Hence show that the chord of contact, PQ , has equation

2 1

(iii) The chord PQ passes through the focus S ( ae, 0) , where e is the eccentricity of the hyperbola. Prove that T lies on the directrix of the hyperbola.

Question 5 continues on page 11 – 10 –

Marks Question 5 (continued)

(c)

(i)

Write (x – 1)(5 – x) in the form b2 – (x – a)2 , where a and b are real numbers.

1

(ii) Using the values of a and b found in part (i) and making the substitution

2

? x – a = b sin θ , or otherwise, evaluate ? ?1

5

( x ? 1)(5 ? x ) dx .

(d) 1 B P

A

π 5

E

C

D

In the diagram, ABCDE is a regular pentagon with sides of length 1. The perpendicular to AC through B meets AC at P. Copy or trace this diagram into your writing booklet. (i)

π Let u = cos . 5

Use the cosine rule in Δ ACD to show that 8u3 – 8u2 + 1 = 0.

1 . 2

2

(ii)

One root of 8x 3 – 8x 2 + 1 = 0 is

2

Find the other roots of 8x 3 – 8x 2 + 1 = 0 and hence find the exact value π of cos . 5

End of Question 5 – 11 –

Marks Question 6 (15 marks) Use a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(a)

(i)

Use the binomial theorem

1

( a + b )n

? n ? n ?1 = a n + ? ?

a b + ? + bn ? 1?

to show that, for n ≥ 2,

? n ?

2n > ? ? . ? 2?

(ii) Hence show that, for n ≥ 2, n+2 2n ?1 < 4n + 8 .

2

n ( n ? 1)

(iii) Prove by induction that, for integers n ≥ 1, ? 1? ? 1? ? 1? 1 + 2 ? ? + 3? ? + ? + n ? ? ? 2? ? 2? ? 2?

2 n ?1

3 = 4 ? n+2 2

n ?1

.

(iv) Hence determine the limiting sum of the series ? 1? ? 1? 1 + 2 ? ? + 3? ? + ? . ? 2? ? 2?

2

1

Question 6 continues on page 13

– 12 –

Marks Question 6 (continued)

(b)

A raindrop falls vertically from a high cloud. The distance it has fallen is given by ? e1.4 t + e ?1.4 t ? x = 5 loge ? ? 2 ? ? where x is in metres and t is the time elapsed in seconds.

(i)

Show that the velocity of the raindrop, v metres per second, is given by ? e1.4 t ? e ?1.4 t ? v = 7? ?. ? e1.4 t + e ?1.4 t ?

2

(ii)

Hence show that v 2 = 49 ? 1 ? e ?

? 25x ?

2 .

?

(iii)

Hence, or otherwise, show that ?? = 9 . 8 ? 0 . 2 v 2 . x

2

(iv)

The physical significance of the 9.8 in part (iii) is that it represents the acceleration due to gravity. What is the physical significance of the term – 0.2v 2 ?

1

(v)

Estimate the velocity at which the raindrop hits the ground.

1

End of Question 6 – 13 –

BLANK PAGE

– 14 –

Marks Question 7 (15 marks) Use a SEPARATE writing booklet. Show that sin x < x for x > 0.

(a)

(i)

2

(ii)

Let ? ( x ) = sin x ? x + is concave up for x > 0.

x

3

. Show that the graph of y = ? ( x ) 6

2

(iii)

By considering the first two derivatives of ? ( x ) , show that sin x > x ? x for x > 0. 6

3

2

Question 7 continues on page 16

– 15 –

Marks Question 7 (continued)

(b) P Q U V

S′

φθ

S

α

R

= 1 meets the directrix a2 b2 at R. Perpendiculars from P and Q to the directrix meet the directrix at U and V In the diagram the secant PQ of the ellipse respectively. The focus of the ellipse which is nearer to R is at S. Copy or trace this diagram into your writing booklet. (i) Prove that PR PU . = QR QV 1

x2

+

y2

(ii)

Prove that

PU PS . = QV QS

1

(iii)

Let ∠ PSQ = φ , ∠ RSQ = θ and ∠ PRS = α . By considering the sine rule in Δ PRS and ΔQRS, and applying the results of part (i) and part (ii), show that φ = π – 2θ . Let Q approach P along the circumference of the ellipse, so that φ → 0. What is the limiting value of θ ?

2

(iv)

1

Question 7 continues on page 17 – 16 –

Marks Question 7 (continued)

(c)

W

β

M

P

β

N R

S′

S

The diagram shows an ellipse with eccentricity e and foci S and S ′. The tangent at P on the ellipse meets the directrices at R and W. The perpendicular to the directrices through P meets the directrices at N and M as shown. Both ∠ PSR and ∠ PS ′W are right angles. Let ∠ MPW = ∠ NPR = β . (i) Show that PS = e cos β PR

where e is the eccentricity of the ellipse.

2

(ii)

By also considering

PS ′ show that ∠ RPS = ∠WPS ′ . PW

2

End of Question 7

– 17 –

Marks Question 8 (15 marks) Use a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(a)

(i)

? ? Using a suitable substitution, show that ? ? ( x ) dx = ? ? ( a ? x ) d x . ?0 ?0

A function ? ( x ) has the property that ? ( x ) + ? (a ? x ) = ? (a). Using part (i), or otherwise, show that

a

a

1

(ii)

2

? a ? ? ( x ) dx = 2 ? ( a ) .

?0

a

(b)

(i)

Let n be a positive integer. Show that if z2 ≠ 1 then ? z n ? z ? n ? n ?1 1 + z 2 + z 4 + ? + z 2n ? 2 = ? ? z . ? z ? z ?1 ?

2

(ii) By substituting z = cos θ + i sin θ , where sin θ ≠ 0, into part (i), show that 1 + cos 2θ + ? + cos ( 2n ? 2 )θ + i ? ?sin 2θ + ? + sin ( 2n ? 2 )θ ? ? = sin n θ ? cos ( n ? 1)θ + i sin ( n ? 1)θ ? ?. sin θ

?

3

(iii) Suppose θ =

π

. Using part (ii), show that 2n π 2π ( n ? 1) π = cot π . + sin + ? + sin n n n 2n

2

sin

Question 8 continues on page 19

– 18 –

Marks Question 8 (continued)

(c) X2 X1 Xn

Xn

–1

X3 d4

X4

X5 X6

d6

X7

The diagram shows a regular n-sided polygon with vertices X1, X2 , · · ·, Xn . Each side has unit length. The length dk of the ‘diagonal’ Xn Xk where k = 1, 2, · · ·, n – 1 is given by kπ n . dk = π sin n sin

(Do NOT prove this.)

(i) Show, using the result in part (b) (iii), that d1 + ? + d n ?1 = 1 2sin 2

2

π 2n

.

(ii)

Let p be the perimeter of the polygon and q = Show that

1 d + ? + d n ?1 . n 1

(

)

2

π ? ? = 2 ? n sin ? . ? q 2n ?

p

2

(iii)

Hence calculate the limiting value of

p as n → ∞. q

1

End of paper – 19 –

STANDARD INTEGRALS

? ? ? ?

x n dx

=

1 n +1 x , n ≠ ? 1; x ≠ 0 , if n < 0 n +1

? ? ? ?

1 dx x

= ln x , x > 0

? ? ? ?

e ax d x

=

1 ax e , a≠0 a 1 sin ax , a ≠ 0 a

? ? ? ?

cos ax dx

=

? ? ? ?

sin ax dx

1 = ? cos ax , a ≠ 0 a 1 tan ax , a ≠ 0 a 1 sec ax , a ≠ 0 a 1 x tan ?1 , a ≠ 0 a a

? ? ? ?

sec 2 ax dx

=

? ? ? ?

sec ax tan ax dx =

? ? ? ?

1 a +x

2 2

dx

=

? ? ? ?

1 a2 ? x 2 1 x ?a

2 2

dx

x = sin ?1 , a > 0 , ? a < x < a a

? ? ? ?

dx

= ln x + x 2 ? a 2 , x > a > 0

( (

) )

? ? ? ?

1

2 x 2 + a

dx

= ln x + x 2 + a 2

NOTE : ln x = loge x ,

x > 0

– 20 –

? Board of Studies NSW 2007

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