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毕业论文外文文献


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员工培训与开发 管理学院 人力资源管理 年级 10 级

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指导教师

员工培训与开发
培训是指为使新老员工获得完成工作所需的技能而采用的方法。培训可能是让新的网 站设计员了解他们所在职位工作的发展性,告诉新的销售员怎样销售他们公司的产品,也 有可能是以为新的主管怎样招聘和评估他的员工。培训是良好管理的特点之一,如果经理 忽视了培训,后果堪忧,拥有潜力很大的员工并不能保证他们一定会成功。事实上,他们 必须知道你想让他们做什么以及怎样去做。如果他们不知道这些,他们就会按照他们自己 的方式而不是你的方式工作。他们可能会毫无准备的做事,也有可能更糟,做事根本没有 任何的效率。所以,好的培训至关重要。 培训会蓬勃发展的原因是培训的内容比以前更具有广泛性。以往培训较多关注的是传 授技能,比如教安装工人如何焊接电路或是教老师如何去写课程计划。今天,这些技术性 的培训已经不再足够。今天的雇主必须要适应技术变革,提高产品质量和服务质量,提高 生产力,保持竞争力。这样往往需要教育补救。举个例子来说,质量改进计划要求雇员能 够设计出图表并进行数据分析。同样,今天的员工需要通过培训来获得以下一些方面的技 能:团队建设、决策和沟通能力、以及技术和计算机技能(如桌面出版系统和电脑辅助设 计与制造) 。同时随着竞争要求更好的服务,员工也越来越多的要求进行客户服务培训。 曾经有一个培训师说过: “我们并不再仅仅只是关注传统的培训目标了? . . 我们应当与 管理层一起坐下来,帮助他们找到战略性目标,以及实现这些目标所需要的技能和知识, 然后与他们一起工作,看看我们的员工是否具备这些知识和技能,如果他们呢不具备,那 我们就该讨论培训需求了。 ” 正是这些趋势帮助解释了为什么培训会蓬勃发展。在一项调查中,当员工一直与他们 的现任雇主一起时,据统计大约有 84%员工接受了某种类型的正规培训。平均而言,员工 一般每年能够受到大约 45 小时的培训,其中大约有三分之一是正式的,三分之二是非正 式的。在 2000 年,美国较大的企业大约花费了 540 亿美元用于员工培训。其中大部分的 支出是作为薪酬支付给公司的内部培训专家,但是也有超过 190 亿美元的支出是支付给外 部供应商以及材料费、课程费和服务费等。 五阶段培训与开发流程: 培训计划包括五个步骤 首先,是培训需求分析,识别特定工作需要的技能,评估将要受训员工的技能,根据 他们的不足之处制定具体的、可测量的知识和绩效目标。第二,制定设计、编写和制定培 训内容,包括工作手册、练习和活动:这里可以充分使用本章所讨论的一些技术,如在职 培训、电脑辅助培训。第三,确认阶段,通过把培训计划介绍给一小批代表听众,可以发 现计划中的一些问题。第四,实施计划,对目标员工群体进行培训。第五,评估阶段,评

估计划的成功与失败之处。 大多数员工可能不会(也不需要)创建自己的培训材料,因为很多材料都可以在线或 者离线查找到。例如,专业培训网站 thinq.com 提供大量的网络课程,员工可以在线参加。 很多公司,包括 American Media,Inc,West Des Moines 都提供整套的培训包。这些培 训包包括一套培训管理手册、自学书籍,以及提升某些技能的录像带,如顾客服务、公文 写作以及绩效评估。 培训和学习 培训实质上是一个学习的过程,研究显示,可以通过以下几个方面来改善学习。 使学习更有意义 学员更容易理解和记住那些有意义的材料。因此: 1.在培训开始时,为受训者提供一个培训内容的概览,了解整体框架对学习会有帮助。 2.使用多个人们熟悉的案例。 3.组织信息,一边有逻辑、有意义地表述出来。 4.使用受训者已经熟悉的概念和术语。 5.尽可能的使用视觉教具。 使技能更容易转移 使新的技能和行为可以很容易地从培训地点转换到工作地点: 1.使培训环境与工作环境尽可能相似。 2.提供充分的练习机会。 3.对机器的每个特征或者流程中的每个步骤都予以标记或识别。 4.将受训者的注意力引致工作的重要方面。例如,如果培训客户服务代表如何接电话,首 先就要解释他们可能面对的电话的不同类型以及怎样识别这些不同类型的电话。 5.提供那些需要事前了解的信息。例如,受训者学习成为一线经理通常要面对压力环境、 高工作负荷和难缠的下属。研究表明,如果让受训者提前知道可能会有这些情况的发生, 就可以减少这些事件的负面效应。 激励受训者 以下几种方式可以激励学员: 1.从实践中学习是最好的方式,尽可能多的提供真实的练习环境。 2.对受训者的正确回答立即给予支持和肯定,可能是很快的说一声“做得很好” ,这样受 训者学习的效果会更好。 3.受训者按照自己的速度学习时效果最好。如果可能的话让他们自己控制速度。 4.在受训者的头脑中构建一种有意识的培训需求。在一项研究中,那些受过前期培训。经 历过以外事件的飞行员在减少事故训练中比其他飞行员学到更多的东西。可以通过放映模 拟飞行事故的录像来证明培训的必要性。同样, “在培训前,经理人员应当坐下来与受训 者谈谈为什么他们会参加这次培训,希望他们学到什么以及怎样把学到的东西运用到工作 中去。 ” 5.日程也很重要:学习曲线在后半天会往下走,因此,一整天的培训没有半天或者大半天 的效果好。

法律方面的培训 各种法律适应于培训课程的设计与实施。举个例子来说,由于只培训少部分的人或者 相对较少的妇女,雇主可能会在不知不觉当中违反 EEO 法律,或者也有可能对于少数学员 来说,培训手册的阅读和理解能力要求太高,因此,不管他们的才能怎样,只要他们在工 作当中做得不好,他们就需要接受培训。可能最终都不得不表示,培训入场过程是合法的 —它预测表现在培训计划或是在工作的过程当中。在最近的一项反倾销协定实例中,通过 汽车公司的一位前雇员说,除非公司解雇他,否则公司就不能因为他身上携带艾滋病毒的 这一事情而否认他的培训。最后,这一员工获得了 7000 美元的培训补偿费用和 28000 美 元的补偿性损害赔偿金。 忽视培训是另一种培训风险。对培训忽视一般发生在一个雇主自己本身就没有受到充 分的培训,雇员其后就成为受到危害的第三方。这是一个比较特殊的问题,如武装的治安 警卫的任务是旨在公众服务。采取的预防措施包括以下几个方面: 1.对所申请人确定要求的技巧和经验。 2.对要在危险的设备、材料或过程中工作的员工进行钢钒的培训。 3.确保培训过程中,以保护第三方的健康和安全。 4.评估培训活动,以确定其有效性,减少疏忽的风险。 就国家而言,教育和培训可以提高国民的整体素质,从而为经济增长做出贡献;就企 业组织而言,培训可以发掘人才潜能,发挥人才作用,营造企业的核心竞争能力,为组织 目标实现服务,就员工而言,培训可以使员工更新观念,掌握新技术,适应组织的更高要 求,应付更有挑战性的工作。企业培训的作用表现在:提高工作绩效;提高满足感和安全 水平;建立优秀的企业文化和形象。培训的目的在于:增强员工的职业道德;提高专业水 平;提高工作能力。培训的总原则包括:培训要适应企业的现实要求;培训要支持企业的 目标;培训应是一种管理活动;培训管理要有统一性和科学性;培训是为了获得理想的行 为后果而进行的;培训应为员工的自我开发和职业发展服务。培训的一般原则有:处理好 企业近期目标与长远战略的关系,要做到学以致用;要注意成人学习的原则;培训是第一 把手的重要职责;要注意个体差异的原则;要注意培训效果的反馈与培训结构的强化;要 注重激励原则。

Training and Developing Employees
Gary Dessler.Human resource management (Ninth Edition) [M].Tsinghua University Press.2005, 187-189 Training refers to the methods used to give new or present employees the skills they need to perform their jobs. Training might mean showing a new Web designer the intricacies of your site , a new salesperson how to sale your firm's product, or a new supervisor how to interview and ev aluate employees. Training is a hallmark of good management, and a tack manager overlook at th eir peril. Having high-potential employees doesn't guarantee they'll succeed. Instead. they have t o know what you want them to do and how you want then to do it. If they don't, they'll do the job s their way, not yours. Or they will improvise, or, worse, do nothing productive at all. Good traini ng is vital. Why the training business is booming“Training” is more inclusive than it used to be. Traini ng used to focus mostly on teaching technical skills. such as training assemblers to solder wires o r teachers to write lesson plans. Today, such technical training is no longer enough. Employers to day have to adapt to technological change, improve product and service quality, and boost produ ctivity to stay competitive. Doing so often requires remedial education. For example, quality imp rovement programs require employees who can produce charts and graphs and analyze data. Sim ilarly, today's employees need skills (and thus training) in team building, decision making, and c ommunication, as well as technological and computer skills (such as desktop publishing and com puter-aided design and manufacturing). And as competition demands better service, employees i ncreasingly require customer service training. As one trainer puts it: “we don't just concentrator on the traditional training objectives anym ore. . . We sit down with management and help them identify strategic goals and objectives and t he skills and knowledge needed to achieve them. Then we work together to identify whether our staff has the skills and knowledge, and when they don’t, that's when we discuss training needs.” Trends like these help explain why training is booming. In one survey, about 84% of emplo yees reportedly received some type of formal training while with their current employers. On ave rage, employees annually received about 45hours of training, about one-third of which was form al, and two-thirds informal. Larger U.S. firms spent about $54 billion training employees in 2000 . Much of that paid the salaries of in-house training specialists, but more than $19 billion went to outside vendors for materials, and services. The Five-Step Training and Development Process

Training programs consist of five steps. The first, or need analysis step, identities the specifi c job performance skills need, analyzes the skills and needs of the prospective trainees, and develops specific, measurable knowledge and performance objectives. In the second step, instruc tional design, you decide on, compile, and produce the training program content, including work books, exercises, and activities; here you’ll probably use techniques like those discussed in this c hapter, such as on-the-job training and computer-assisted learning. There may be a third, validati on step, in which the bugs are worked out of the training program by presenting it to a shall repre sentative audience. The fourth step is to implement the program, by actually training the targeted employee group. Fifth is an evaluation and follow-up step, in which management assesses the pr ogram's successes or failures. Most employers probably do not (and need not) create their own training materials, since m any materials are available on-and offline. For example, the professional development site thinq. com offers a wide range of Web-based courses employees can take online. And many firms, inclu ding American Media, Inc, of West Des Moines, lowa, provide turnkey training packages. These include a training leader's guide, self-study book, and video for improving skills in areas such as customer service, documenting discipline, and appraising performance. Training and Learning Training is essentially a learning process, and studies show there arc several things you can do to improve learning. Make Learning Meaningful It is usually easier for trainees to understand and remember mat erial that is meaningful. Therefore: 1. Al the start of training, provide a bird's-eye view of the material to be presented. Knowing the overall picture facilitates learning. 2.Use a variety of familiar examples. 3.Organize the information so you can present it logically, and in meaningful units. 4.Use terms and concepts that are already familiar to trainees. 5.Use as many visual aids as possible. Make Skills Transfer Easy Make it easy to transfer new skills and behaviors from the trainin g Site to the job site: 1.Maximize tile similarity between the training situation the work situation. 2.Provide adequate practice. 3.Label or identify each feature of the machine and/or step in the process. 4.Direct the trainees attention to important aspect of the Job. For example, if you,retraining custo mer service representatives how to handle incoming calls. first explain the different types of calls they will encounter and how to recognize such calls.

5.Provide “heads-up”, preparatory information. For example, trainees learning to become first-li ne supervisors often face stressful conditions, high workload, and difficult subordinates back on t he job. Studies suggest you can reduce the negative impact of such events by letting trainees kne w they might happen. Motivate the Learner Here are some ways to motivate the trainee: 1.People learn best by doing. Try to provide as much realistic as possible. 2.Trainees learn best when the trainers immediately reinforce correct responses, perhaps with a q uick “well done”. 3.Trainees learn best at their own pace. If possible, let them pace themselves. 4.Create a perceived training need in the trainees' minds. In one study, pilots who had experience pre-training accident-related events subsequently learned more from an accident-reduction traini ng program than did those experiencing fewer such events. You could illustrate the need for the t raining by showing videos of simulated accidents. Similarly, “before the training, managers need to site down and talk with the trainee about why they are enrolled in the c1ass, what they are exp ected to learn and how they can use it on the job”. 5.The schedule is important too: The learning curve goes down late in the day, so that “full day tr aining is not as effective as half the day or there-fourths of` the day”. Legal Aspect of Training Various laws apply to training program design and implementation. For example, employers may unknowingly violate EEO laws by training relatively few women or minorities. Or perhaps the reading level of the training manuals is too high for some minority trainees, who are thus doi ng poorly, quite aside from their aptitude for the jobs they’re being trained for. You may eventual ly have to show that your training admission process is valid-that it predicts performance in the tr aining program or on the job. In one recent ADA case, the former employee said that in addition to terminating him, General Motors had denied him training because of him HTV/AIDS disabilit y. The person received $7000 in back pay and $28000 in compensatory damages. Negligent training is another legal hazard. Negligent training occurs when an employer fails to train adequately. and the employee subsequently harms a third party. This is particularly a pro blem when the business (such as armed security guard) is armed at serving the public. Precaution s to take include these: 1.Confirm claims of skill and experience for all applicants. 2.Extensively train employees who work with dangerous equipment, materials or processes. 3.Ensure that the training includes procedures to protect third parties' health and safety (includin g those of other employees). 4. Evaluate the training activity to determine its effectiveness in reducing negligence risks.

Speaking of the country, the education and training may improve national's overall quality, t hus makes the contribution for the economical grow. Organizes speaking of the enterprise, traini ng may seek out talent on potential, displays the talented Person to affect, builds the enterprise th e core competitive ability, serves for the organization goal realization; Speaking of the staff indiv idual, training may make the staff to renew the idea, grasp the new technology, to adapt organiza tion’s higher request, deal will the challenge work. The function of enterprise trains displays in: Enhances the work achievements; Enhances the feeling satisfies and the security level; establishe s the outstanding enterprise culture and the image. The training goal lies in: Strengthens staff’s o ccupational ethics; Raises the specialized Level; sharpens the working ability. The training total principle includes: Training must adapt enterprise’s realistic demand; Training must support the e nterprise the goal; Training should be one kind of management; the training management must h ave the unity and the scientific nature; Training carry on for obtaining the ideal behavior consequ ence; Training should sever tar staff’s self-development and the occupation development. The tra ining principle of equality includes: Will process the enterprise in the near future the goal and the long term strategic relations; Must achieve studies for the Purpose of application; Must Pay atte ntion to the Principle which the adult studies; Training is CEO's important responsibility; Must P ay attention to the individual differences; Pay attention to the training effete the feed back and th e training result strengthening; Must pay great attention to drive Principle.


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