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中国旅游市场分析 Tourism Market in China
【摘要】 随着中国经济的持续增长和国民收入水平的迅速提高, 中国旅游业的发展出现了前 所未有的变化, 中国潜力巨大的出境旅游市场已引起全球瞩目, 但是入境旅游市场却持续低 迷。 本文我首先谈谈中国出入境旅游市场的现状, 其次分析我国入境旅游市场目前存在的问 题及原因,最后提出个人建议。 【Abstract】As the sustained economic growth and the rapid increase in national income, the tourism industry in China has changed a lot. China's outbound tourism market has attracted the world's attention, but inbound tourism market has continued to slump. In this paper, I will talk about the status of Chinese tourism market first, then I will analyze the the current problems that exist in inbound tourism market and the reasons. Finally, I will give personal proposals. 【关键词】出境旅游;入境旅游;旅游逆差 【Keywords】outbound tourism; inbound tourism; tourism deficit

一、我国出入境旅游市场现状 随着居民旅游消费升级以及出境旅游更加便利,出境旅游市场持续快速增长。2012 年 中国成为世界第一大出境旅游市场,中国游客境外消费总额达 1020 亿美元,成为世界第一 大出境旅游消费国。中国目前已稳居世界第一大出境客源国、第一大出境旅游消费国、第一 大旅游购物客源国。2013 年中国公民出境人数达到 9818.52 万人次,同比增长 18%;其中因 私出境人数 9196.90 万人次, 同比增长 19.4%。 2013 年中国游客境外消费达到 1290 亿美元; 环球蓝联的数据也显示,2013 年中国游客的免税消费占全球的 27%,蝉联全球第一。

1.The status of Chinese tourism market With the concept of tourism consumption upgrades, more convenient outbound tourism, outbound tourism market continues to grow rapidly. In 2012, China had become the world's largest outbound tourism market, total consumption that Chinese tourists spent overseas amounted to 102 billion US dollars, becoming the world's largest consumer of outbound tourism. China has remained the world's largest outbound tourist country, the largest consumer of outbound tourism, the largest source country of shopping. The number of outbound Chinese citizens in 2013 reached 98,185,200, with an increase of 18%; in which private number is 91,969,000, with an increase of 19.4%. Chinese tourists overseas consumption reached 129 billion US dollars in 2013.Global Blue's data also show that in 2013 tax-free consumption of Chinese tourists accounted for 27% of the world, the first in the world.

根据中国旅游研究院数据, 2014 年前三季度我国出境旅游 8500 万人次, 同比增长 16.6%, 出境旅游花费 1150 亿美元,同比增长 17.3%;2014 年全年出境旅游人数将首次突破 1 亿人 次/年,达到 1.15 亿人次,同比增长 17.5%;出境旅游花费 1550 亿美元,同比增长 20.8%。

According to the data provided by China Tourism Research Institute, in the first three quarters of 2014, China's outbound tourism reached 85 million, with an increase of 16.6%; outbound tourism spending reached $ 115 billion, with an increase of 17.3%. The year 2014 was the first year exceeding 1 million passengers, reaching 115 million passengers, with an increase of 17.5%; outbound tourism spending reached $ 155 billion, with an increase of 20.8%.
国内居民富裕程度的逐步提升, 以及各国办理签证条件的逐渐放宽, 使得出境旅游变得 更为便利,会有越来越多的国内居民踏出国门,出境游将成为居民日常休闲生活的一部分, 且将更为频繁,出境旅游市场将延续快速增长态势。

Domestic wealth gradually improves, as well as gradually relaxed visa conditions, all make outbound travel become more convenient. There are more and more domestic residents want to travel overseas. Outbound tourism will become one part of people's daily leisure life, and will become more frequent, outbound tourism market will continue to grow rapidly.

从旅游局发布的数据来看, 我国旅游市场中出入境游客数量分布不均, 出境旅游市场发 展良好,而我国入境旅游市场处于低迷状态,这就造成了我国旅游业的贸易逆差。近几年来 我国旅游业贸易逆差持续增大。有关数据显示,2012 年我国旅游业境外消费 1020 亿美元, 贸易逆差 519 亿美元;2013 年境外消费 1287 亿美元,贸易逆差 769 亿美元;2014 年前 6 个月境外消费 700 亿美元,逆差 470 亿美元,2014 年贸易逆差超过 1000 亿美元。

From the data released by Tourism Bureau, the distribution of visitors in China's tourism market is uneven. China's inbound tourism market is in the doldrums, while outbound tourism market is developed well, which resulted in a trade deficit of China's tourism industry. In recent years, China's tourism trade deficit continues to increase. The data shows that in 2012, tourism consumption abroad reached $ 102

billion, trade deficit was $ 51.9 billion. In 2013, consumption abroad reached $ 128.7 billion, trade deficit was $ 76.9 billion. The first 6 months in 2014, consumption abroad reached $ 70 billion, the whole year trade deficit in 2014 was over 100 billion US dollars.

二、出现旅游贸易逆差的原因(侧重服务) 旅游贸易逆差受外部经济形势、国家关系、天气环境等因素的影响,但是本文主要从服 务这方面分析原因。

2. The reasons(put more emphasis on service) There are many factors that will influence the tourism market,for example, the external economic situation, the impact of state relations, weather conditions. But in this paper, I will analyze mainly from the service.
(一)旅游环境不尽如人意 旅游环境分自然环境、社会环境和法律环境,这三种环境都是旅游资源,应并重开发。 如今,大家都认准了旅游是投资少、见效快、就业广的新的经济增长点。全国有 20 多个省、 市、自治区将旅游作为重点产业来抓,有的一个省就设了 40 个旅游开发区。举例来说,神 秘的西双版纳是我国宝贵的热带原始森林, 是一个极具开发价值的旅游风景区, 但近十几年 的毁林开荒,伐木取薪,森林面积急剧下降,原来良好的生态环境现在已降到临界。旅游资 源遭到掠夺性砍伐、文化遗产遭到人为破坏。此外,据对中国 42 处风景名胜旅游景点的调 查,其中 31 处存在严重的旅游垃圾污染问题,占被调查总数的 73.8%;污染比较严重的有 4 处,只有 8 处的环境破坏与污染较轻,仅占被调查总数的 19.05%。 人们对于社会环境对游客的影响认识不足, 虽然社会环境也算旅游环境的一部分。 破坏 社会环境也是破坏旅游资源的道理尚未引起人们的重视。 还有, 法律环境也有待改善。一国旅游环境受多种因素影响: 政治的、经济的、自然的、 社会的、文化的乃至心理的因素。但其中起决定作用是法律因素,因为其他因素主要是通过 一定法律体制和法律规定,对外国旅游者和旅游服务贸易投资者产生影响。

(1) The environment is not satisfactory

The environment includes natural environment, social environment and legal environment. These three parts are all tourism resources, we should lay equal stress on which when we develop. Today, we all consider the tourism is the new economic growth point, because of its features that less investment,efficient, and wide employment. There are more than 20 provinces and regions, consider the tourism industry as a key industry. Some provinces even set up 40 tourism development zones. Such as XishuangBanna, precious tropical forests in China, is an extremely valuable tourist area. But in recent 10 years,because of deforestation, illegal cutting, the forest area declines sharply. The original fairly good ecological environment is not good anymore. Exploitative logging to tourism resources, cultural heritage destruction due to artificial factors. In addition, according to the survey to 42 scenic attractions in China , of which 31 has a serious pollution problem, accounting for 73.8% of the total surveyed. There are four scenic spots which are serious polluted,only 8 scenic spots are polluted fairly light, only accounting for 19.05% of the total surveyed. People are lack of knowledge of the social environment in modern tourism development compared to natural resources,although which belongs to the tourism environment as well. Destruction of the social environment is the destruction of tourism resources, which is the truth that has not yet attracted attention. The legal environment also need to be improved. A tourist environment includes politics, natural, social and even psychological factors, but the legal factor plays a decisive role. Because these various factors has a direct impact on foreign tourists and investors primarily through certain legal system and law.
(二)缺乏高质旅游服务 跨国旅游算是境外消费。只有消除国际旅游的障碍,保证国际旅游人数增加,才能为国 家赚取经济发展所需的外汇。而优质、高效、国际标准的旅游服务,又是保证国际旅游者重 复消费的重要条件。而中国目前正缺乏这种国际标准化的旅游服务:签证手续烦琐、海关和 边检的效率低下、兑币地点少等。另外,就是旅行社市场较为混乱:无序竞争中的竞相压价、 高额回扣、价格欺诈、非法经营、违规经营、违规操作、服务贸易方面的“降格服务”等。

(2) Lack of service with high standard Transnational tourist is consumption abroad. Only eliminate obstacles to international tourism, ensure the increase of international tourists, then can earn foreign exchange for the country. The tourism service with high quality, efficiency, and international standardization is an important condition is to ensure that repeated consumption of international tourism. And in present China,we lack of such international standardization tourism service, such as red tape, low efficiency of the customs and border, and few points exchange the currencies. Another is that the travel agency market is relatively chaotic. For example, the disorderly competition in the race to keep the prices down, high commission, price fraud, illegal business, illegal operations,downgrading services.
(三)缺少对旅游景点的开发和保护

旅游资源不等于旅游产品,更不等于旅游业。开发旅游业必须树立旅游产品的观念,而 旅游产品是由旅游资源、 旅游设施和旅游服务等方面有机组成的综合体。 不注重旅游资源向 旅游产品的转化,旅游业就不可能有持续发展。就如自然景观,国家认定的风景名胜区 512 处,只重视对它们的开发使用,而不注意管理保护。

(3) Lack of development and protection Tourism resources are not equal to the tourism product, and it does not mean tourism industry. Tourism development must establish the concept of tourism products and tourism product is the organic synthesis of tourism resources, tourism facilities and services. If we do not pay attention to the tourism resources into tourism products, there can not be a sustainable development. Such as natural landscape, there are 512 national scenic spots recognized by nation, which is only be used, without enough attention to manage and protect.
(四)旅游商品供应 国际旅游商品创汇占旅游收入的 40–50%,香港高达 60%,我国大陆这一比例只有 20%。 旅游是一种异地的精神和物质的享受活动,而购物则是旅游过程中的延伸和旅游感受的物 化,这就要求旅游商品具有地方性、民族性、纪念性、知识性、艺术性、趣味性、收藏性等 特色,至少具备一项,兼有多项更佳。而我国的旅游商品存在样式陈旧,品种单一;粗制滥 造、质量低劣;缺少地方特色,市场趋于雷同;商品文化含量、艺术品味不高等问题。

(4) The tourism commodity supply International tourism commodity accounts for 40-50% of earned tourism revenue. The proportion in Hong Kong is 60%, while in mainland China average to 20%. Tourism is a spiritual and material enjoyment activity, and shopping is a travel and tourism in the process of extending feel materialized, which requires the tourism commodity have ethnic traditions, local characteristics, artistry, etc.. At least one of them, more is better. However, the style of China's tourism commodity is old, single and shoddy.The quality is inferior ,lack of local characteristics, the market tends to be identical, artistic taste is not high, and so on.
(五)素质有待进一步提高 这里所指的素质:一是队伍素质;二是产业素质,包括景点建设,商品开发,旅游规则, 产业格局,市场网络,企业管理,规范市场秩序等。如果不提高,将无法经营好全球化的国 际旅游。

(5) The quality needs to be improved Quality refers to team quality;industry quality , including the construction of scenic spots, product development, tourism rules, industry structure, marketing network, enterprise management, the market order standardization, and so on. If the quality do not be improved, it will not operate international tourism well with the condition of economic globalization.

三、措施(侧重服务)

3. Measures(put more emphasis on service)
(一)加强基础设施建设 基础设施是物质基础, 地理便利是促进旅游业发展的必要条件, 尤其是面临和竞争对手 同质竞争时。因此要加强基础设施建设,提供便利的交通等条件。

(1)Strengthen infrastructure construction Infrastructure is the material basis, geographical convenience is a necessary condition for promoting the development of tourism, especially when face the homogeneous competition by foreign competitors. Therefore, we should strengthen infrastructure construction, providing convenient transportation conditions, etc..
(二)培养高端旅游人才 瞄准高端旅游市场,提供高端旅游服务,培养高端旅游人才。服务贸易的发展要依靠人 才优势, 新的运营和管理模式也要依靠大量高素质的人才。 要适应逐渐缩短的知识更新时期 的要求。必须加快旅游人才的培养,培养更多更好的旅游综合型人才。

(2) Train high-end tourism personnel Target the high-end tourism market, provide high-end tourism services, train high-end tourism personnel. Development of tourism must rely on the talent advantage. And new operational and management models rely on a large number of high-quality personnel. Adapt to the knowledge requirements which gradually shortened the period to update. Therefore we must accelerate the implementation of the strategy of tourism professionals. Train more and high quality integrated tourism talents.
(三)提升我国旅游服务质量 虽然我国的旅游服务贸易在“量”上已经达到“旅游大国”的水平,但在“质”上,与世 界上一些典型的旅游强国相比还存在很大差距。 创造垂直差异,提供比竞争对手更好的旅游服务。创新管理和服务理念,引进国外先进 的管理方法、技术和经验,提升我国旅游服务贸易的国际化水平。 创造水平差异,提供与竞争对手不同的旅游产品。首先,历史性的文物古迹,应该受国 家保护,加强后期的维护和管理,保持它们的独特性。其次,对于后天开发的旅游景区,应 强调主题特色,不能一味地模仿借鉴,优化品牌形象。

(3) Improve the level of tourism services The quantity of tourism services in China is large. But the quality is low. There are still big gap between China and typical world tourism powerful nation. Create vertical difference, provide a better tourism service than competitors. Innovative management and service concept, introduce foreign advanced management methods, techniques and experience to enhance our level of international tourism trade. Create horizontal difference, provide different tourism products. Firstly, the cultural relics and historic sites should be under the protection of the state. They should be maintained and managed in its latter days, maintaining their uniqueness. Secondly, for the attraction developed by man, the theme should be emphasized, we should optimize brand image and can not blindly imitate.

(四)大力宣传 通过广告、 销售宣传以及公关活动给消费者留下偏好和主观形象。 应有效利用网络在宣 传方面的作用。如:旅游宣传视频,地理杂志等。

(4)Promotion Through advertising, sales promotion and public relations activities, consumers can leave preferences and subjective image. The network should be effectively utilized in promotion. Such as: tourism promotional video, geographic magazines.
(五)有效拓展市场规模 利用网络整合旅游资源,有效开发潜在市场需求,促进销售增加。简化签证手续、提高 海关和边检的效率、增加兑币地点、整合旅行社市场。

(5) Expand market size Use the network to integrate tourism resources, develop potential market demand effectively, and promote sales. Simplify visa procedures, improve customs and border efficiency, increase against the currency locations, integrate the travel agency market.

【参考文献】 【1】卢小金.我国旅游服务贸易逆差下的汇兑损失及不利影响 U1.价格月刊,2013(6): 54 —56. 【2】章家清,谭鹏成.我国旅游服务贸易出口影响因素探析Ⅱ】.生态经济, 2009 (1): 155 —157. 【3】刘丁有,刘信信.陕西旅游服务贸易发展对经济增长影响的实证研究田.开发研究, 2012(1):32—35. 【4】P 小金.中国旅游服务贸易逆差的分析与思考 U】.中国商贸 ,2012 (8):144—146.


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