Medical English Writing 医学英语写作 医学写作的主要任务： 对医学某一学科、领域创新性发现进行科学论述 对某些实验性或观测性的新知识进行科学记录 对某些原理在实际应用中的新进展、新成果进行科学总结 医学文献的体裁： 常用的有： 学术论文 SCIENTIFIC PAPER 学位论文 DISSERTATION 医学综述 MEDICAL REVIEW 病例系列分析 CASE-SERIES ANALYSIS 科学社论 SCIENTIFIC EDITORIALS 按学科专业性质不同可分为：基础医学研究论文 预防医学研究论文 临床医学研究论文 医学管理论文 （结构灵活，没有统一格式） 按论文的体裁不同可分为：研究论文 调查报告 经验总结 病例分析 疗效观察 医学论文的一般格式 ①国际——温哥华格式 国际生物医学期刊编辑委员会，1978 年 1 月 草案，1997 年，第五版 ---《生物医学期刊投稿的统一要求》 (the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, 5th Ed., 1997) ②国内——国家标准 1987 年公布《科学技术报告、学位论文和学术论文 的编写格式》 （GB7713-87）文件 ③期刊——遵循所要投稿的期刊对于论文的格式要求 期刊每年的第一期，刊出该刊论文及参考文献的格式要求。 The most widely used format styles by biomedical journals: URM format: the Uniform requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals for The Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine and Surgery 生物医学期刊投稿统一要求 AMA format: journals of the American Medical Association 美国医学会杂志投稿要求 APA format: journals of the American Psychological Association 美国心理学协会杂志投稿要求 研究论文（research paper） Title 标题 Authorship 作者 Abstract and Key Words 摘要和关键词 Introduction 引 言 Materials and Methods 材 料 和 方 法 Results 结 果 Discussion 讨 论 References 参考文献 Acknowledgement 致谢 1.1 标题（Title） 反映研究的对象、手段、方法与达到的程度 简明扼要、确切醒目 中文标题一般不超过 20 个字 外文标题 < = 10 个实词 （一）短语型标题 名词+介词 Blindness after Treatment for Malignant Hypertension 恶性高血压治疗后的视觉缺失
名词+分词 Unilateral Neurogenic Pruritus Following Stroke 中风后单侧神经性瘙痒 名词+不定式 Suggestion to Abolish Icterus Index Determination where Quantitative Bilirubin Assay is Available 建议能做胆红素定量的化验室不再做黄疸指数测定 Gentamicin, a Selective Agent for the Isolation of beta hemolytic Streptococci 庆大霉素是分离β -溶血性链球菌的选择性药物 名词+从句 Evidence that the V-sis Gene Product Transforms by Interaction with the Receptor for Platelet-derived Growth Factor. V-sis 基因产物由血小板生长因子受体相互作用而转化的 依据 Preventing Stroke in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation 心房纤颤患者中风预防 Detecting Acute Myocardial Infarction by Radio-immunoassay for Creative Kinase 用放射免疫法测定心肌酸激酶诊断急性心肌梗死 介词短语 On Controlling Rectal Cancer 有关直肠癌的控制 （二）句子型标题 特点：accurate, concise and informative 大小写：- all words capitalized - content words capitalized(使用最多) - the first word capitalized 结构： - 短语型 - 句子型 标点：标题通常不加标点，正副标题间可加冒号或破折号，问句句末加问号。 副标题 （一）突出病例数 （二）突出研究方法 （三）突出重点内容 （四）表示同位关系 （五）提出疑问 （六）表示长篇连载论文各分篇的主题 （七）说明研究时间 1.讨论类: Discussion of/on; An approach to; A probe into; Investigation of; Evaluation of/on （汉语中的“初步体会” 、 “试论” 、 “浅析”之类的谦辞可以不译。直接表达本意。 ） 例：Sudden Cardiac Death：Clinic Pathologic Investigation of 51 Cases 心脏性猝死 51 例临床病理探讨 2.观察、报告、结果类：An observation/ Observations of / on/in 例：Clinical Observation on 342 Cases with Allergic Rhinitis 342 例过敏性鼻炎的临床观察 3.调查类：Survey of / on 例：Parathyroidectomy in Chronic Renal Failure: Survey of 38 Cases 慢性肾功能衰竭的甲状旁腺切除疗法 38 例调查 4.体会经验类：Experience in / with; Reflection on
例： Recent Experience with Bacillemia Due to Gram-negative Organisms 治疗革兰氏阴性杆 菌血症的新体会 5.总结综述类：Summary of/ Experience of; Review of 例：Treatment for Malignant Hypertension: An Experience of 35 Cases 35 例恶性高 血压治疗总结 6.问题类：Problem of; Some Aspects on 例：Certain Problems of the Surgical Treatment of Hyperparathyroidism 甲状旁腺机能亢进手术治疗的几个问题 7.探究类： Study of/ on / in; Probe into; Exploration of 例：Platelet Function Studies in Heart Disease 心脏病患者血小板功能的研究 8.报告类：Report of / on 例：A Report of Rosai-Dorfman 腮腺肿块病报告 9.药物治疗和非药物治疗： in the Treatment of ?; Management of ?; Treatment .. with..; Use of ? in the treatment of ?; Therapy of / for ? by ? 例：Use of Steroid in the Treatment of Clinical Septic Shock 皮质激素治疗败血症休克 Treatment of Psoriasis by Hemodialysis 血液透析治疗牛皮癣 10. 诊断： in the diagnosis of ? ; Detection of ? in ? ; Diagnosis of ? by/ with ? ; Detection of ? by ?; Application of ? to the Diagnosis of ? 例：Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Gallstones 胆石症超声波诊断 标题冠词的省略 标题中常用名词的搭配 标题中常用介词的搭配 几种常用的标题句式 引言 要简要介绍研究的背景和理由，说明研究的内容和目的。 （背景包括研究现状，进展、尚待解决的问题；相关的资料来源，收集方法；研究方法，预 期结果，价值和意义；本人先前的一些研究介绍。 ） 文字精练，篇幅不宜过长，一般 200 字左右。 P.18 第一段 研究概况（背景和理由） Helicobacter Pylori(pairo:rai)Hp 幽门杆菌 is considered to be the main aetiological agent 发 病原因 of the most common form of chronic gastritis in the adult population.Type B gastritis is localized in the antrum and pylorus 幽门, whereas type A gastritis, the classic autoimmune gastritis, mainly occurs in the fundus 底部. H pylori positive chronic gastritis of the antrum has been found to be closely related to duodenal 十二指肠 ulcer and can lead to gastric atrophy 萎缩, a precursor of gastric cancer. 第二段和第三段 内容和方法 Environmental factors, such as socioeconomic and educational state, seem to affect the prevalence of H pylori infection. Infection is consistently higher in
Hispanic and black people than in white people and is inversely related to educational level.The prevalence of H pylori infection is higher in close communities and in members of family groups than in the general population. This may be due to relapses or reinfections between members of the same family. Furthermore, the route of transmission of H pylori remains unknown. Under natural circumstances transmission could be by the orooral or faecal-oral(粪-口) routes, but no strong evidence exists to support either route as the primary one, and both may be relevant depending on other factors. 第四段 理由和意义 Most studies of transmission of H pylori infection within families have been conducted on parents and siblings of children referred for 针对?研究 symptoms and not on the general population. To avoid this potential selection bias, we studied part of the population of the cohort study 群组研究 to assess whether children of H pylori infected parents had higher infection rate than those families with uninfected parents. 1. 介绍背景、现状、尚待解决的问题，报告病案或概括 原始文献的观点和结论常用一般现在时或者是现在完成 时，多用被动语态。 例：Since its initial description 40 years ago, HCM（Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy 肥厚型心肌 病） has been largely regarded to be associated with substantial disability and premature death, and annual mortality rates as high as 3% to 6% have been reported. 自 40 年前首次报道以来，人们一直认为 HCM 与严重活动能力受限和过早死亡有关。 2. 在有关“内容、目的和方法等” 的句子中，描述过去的研究活动可用过去时或者过去完 成时。 - Patients with myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, and congenital heart diseases were excluded. - The analysis showed that this disease was associated with age, systolic blood pressure, body mass index.
常用句型或结构的使用 - The purpose/ aim/ objective/ goal (of the present study) is /was to? - The present study is / was designed / devised / intended to? - The study was performed / conducted / carried out / undertaken to? - We aimed / sought to / attempted to? - In an attempt to investigate/ determine/ clarify/ assess
- in an effort to? in order to/ in this study - An attempt was made to; - This paper examines/ is concerned with / deals with / will present or describe; - This study will have three objectives: ? 相关研究成果和现状的常用句型 已有过的研究: Sth. was conducted (performed, made) by sb; Reports were made by?; Early studies in? were reported by?; The paper by ? is ?; Another method of ? has been used by?; Sb. adopted a slightly different approach to?; The ways that researchers have put forward may be concluded in two sorts: one is ? another?; These theory fall into two categories?; The methods based on? can be divided into?; The previous work on.. indicated that.. Recent experiments have suggested that? The history of the use of ? can date back to ?. 未得到充分研究 ?has not yet been thoroughly investigated; Little work has been carried out for? However, no prior work exists on the problem of?; No further study on the .. has been reported; Great progress has been made, but?; There is no theory concerning?; There is not enough convincing evidence showing that?; No such finding could be available in?; The data failed to prove that?; The character of the ? is not yet well known; 文献回顾 It appears that none of the previous investigators is concerned with?; The limitation of ? have long been recognized; There are some shortcomings in the use of?; Another disadvantage of this approach is that..; The theory cannot apply to other cases of?; The study give rise to some difficulties; The main drawback of this ? 引起关注 Sth. has received great (significant, considerable) attention; Sth. has for a long time been of interest to investigators; Increased attention has been paid in recent years to the use of?; Sth. has been an active area of research recently; In view of the ? considerate effort is being expanded into? 不同观点
Studies have differed in their conclusion on /about/ regarding?; There have been different/ conflicting reports regarding/ on? ; The discrepancies may be a result of ?; Studies by ? produced converse professional debate on/ about? 重要性 ? has practical significance /implication for?; ? has been the subject of intensive for?; ? has been the subject of intensive research; ? has been the focus of much interest and debate. 1.5 材料和方法(Materials and Methods) 四部分内容： （1）研究设计 （2）研究对象 （3）处理和测定方法 （4）统计分析 How to write the materials and methods section? ? ? ? ? Write most of the section in the past tense. Organize it in chronological order. Construct subheadings that correspond to those to be used in the Results section. Be precise and concise.
材料与方法 Subjects ? Present inclusion and exclusion criteria for selecting the subjects studied. ? Give details of all relevant characteristics of the study subjects and of any control subjects. ? Give details of informed consent procedures if human subjects are involved. Materials ? Give exact technical specifications of the materials used. ? Do not use proprietary names unless the properties of a particular proprietary product were important to the experiment. ? Give the genus, species and strain of any animals, plants, etc. used in the study. 材料与方法 Methods ? Describe what you did. ? Give sufficient detail to permit other research workers in the field to replicate your work. ? Describe statistical methods. ? Mention a well established method by name, or by giving an appropriate reference. Read the following example and familiarize yourself with the layout: Methods Patients Thirty-six consecutive patients underwent heart transplantation by the midatrial-cuff technique between August 1992 and June1993.
Nine patients were not enrolled in the study; five patients had multiple medical limitations after prolonged hospitalization, and four patients declined to participate. Within two weeks after transplantation, informed consent was obtained from the remaining 27 patients, who were randomly assigned (by selection of sealed envelopes) either to a group that participated in an exercise training program in an outpatient cardiac-rehabilitation setting (exercise group, 14 patients) or to a control group (13 patients). The control group received written guidelines for exercise but participated in no formal, supervised exercise sessions after discharge from the hospital. All the patients were treated with triple-drug immunosuppression, including cyclosporine,( 环孢霉素) azathioprine((硝基)咪唑硫嘌呤), and prednisone. The dosage of prednisone was initially 1 mg per kilogram of body weight per day, given in divided doses, and was gradually decreased to 0.1mg per kilogram per day by six months after transplantation. Episodes of cardiac rejection were treated with an oral bolus dose of prednisone and then tapered doses and, for clinically severe rejection, with OKT3 murine monoclonal antibody (muromonab-CD3). Episodes of rejection and infection were recorded, and blood pressure, renal function, and weight gain evaluated in both groups of patients during the study. Cardiac function was assessed with echocardiography and right-heart catheterization at base line at a six-month follow-up examination. Exercise Program At the time of entry into the structured, six-month program of rehabilitative exercise, patients in the exercise group were evaluated by a physical therapist for overall muscle strength, joint flexibility, and aerobic endurance. On the basis of these findings, a supervised program of exercise was developed by the therapist according to each patient’s specific needs. Strengthening exercises consisted primarily of closed-chain resistive activities (e.g., bridging [lifting of hips with knees flexed in a supine position], half-squats, and toe raises) and abdominal exercises (curl-ups and pelvic tilts). Flexibility exercises, which emphasized chest expansion and thoracic mobility, included side stretches, trunk twists, scapula squeezes, and shoulder rolls. Aerobic exercises consisted of walking on a motorized treadmill or pedaling on a bicycle ergometer (Cybex, Ronkonkoma, N.Y.), as well as arm movemnts on an ergometer (Cybex). The duration and intensity of aerobic-exercise sessions were increased to meet the patient’s tolerance, with a goal of at least 30 minutes of continuous exercise at a moderate intensity.
Patients initially visited the cardiac-rehabilitation clinic one to three weekly (some were unable to attend more than once each week because of transportation difficulties) and receive specific instructions for exercising at home. The frequency of cardiac rehabilitation sessions was gradually reduced to one every two weeks as patients became more independently involved in their home exercise programs. Patients who had rejection were instructed not to exercise until a follow-up endomyocardial biopsy showed resolution of rejection, which usually required two weeks. Measurements Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing All the patients underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise stress test that is routinely administered in our laboratory within one month after cardiac transplantation and again six months after transplantation. Cardiopulmonary exercise stress tests were conducted by bicycle ergometry. During testing, the electrocardiogram was monitored continuously and the blood pressure was measured regularly. For maximal cardiopulmonary exercise stress testing, the patient first cycled at 50 to 70rpm with no workload for three minutes. Then the workload was incrementally increased by 10 W every minute until the patient’s ability to exercise became limited by symptoms. This point was taken as peak oxygen consumption (peak aerobic capacity). During exercise testing, expired gas was collected and analyzed with a gas analyzer (Medical Graphics System 2001, Kalamazoo, Mich). The cardiopulmonary exercise measurements permitted determination of peak oxygen consumption, workload, ventilatory equivalent for oxygen, exercise time, time to estimated threshold of lactic acidosis as determined by the V-slope method (the V slope is the point of a nonlinear increase in carbon dioxide production during exercise.), resting heart rate, peak heart rate, resting blood pressure, peak blood pressure, and minute ventilation. The primary end points of this study were the differences between the two groups of patients in the results of cardiopulmonary exercise stress testing at one month and six months after transplantation. Statistical Analysis The distribution of the patients characteristics, the results of cardiopulmonary exercise testing at base line, the changes in the cardiopulmonary exercise measurements between the base-line evaluation and the six-month follow-up, and postoperative characteristics were evaluated by means of prespecified analyses. The frequency distributions and mode were examined for all the categorical measures. For all the continuous measures, the mean; the 25, 50 75, and 95 percent quantiles; the standard deviations; and the minimal and maximal values were examined. Fisher’ s exact test was used for categorical measures, and the paired t-test was used for continuous measures. For all the tests a two-sided P value of less than 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. 实验研究论文 （1）仪器设备 应说明所用仪器的型号，制造的国别和厂家等详细的参数等。
（2）试剂药品 如材料的来源、制备、选择标准，包括普通名、剂量、服用规则等。尽量避免用商标名。 （3）实验对象 （病人或实验动物，包括对照组） 指明年龄、 性别和其他对象的重要特征等。 （4） 实验方法 表述要精确，包括观察和记录方法的指标，涉及计量和单位的问题，要根据国家最新法 定计量和单位的标准进行表达。 （5） 实验程序、操作要点包括获得结果的过程。 （6） 统计方法 详细，易理解，并能依据原始数据证实报告的结果。 临床疗效观察或临床病例分析论文 （1）可用“对象和方法” （2）涉及新的内容时，应详细而便于同行重复、借鉴。 （3）常规方法或重复前人的方法则可略或注明文献出处即可 时态 (1) 材料与方法部分多属回顾性叙述，一般用过去时表示，有时也可用现在完成时，且多用 被动语态。例如： ①The study was conducted in the tertiary level Neonatal Unit of a teaching hospital over one year period. ② 本项目对冠心病猝死的男性心脏进行前瞻性研究。1994 年 1 月至 1997 年 5 月马里兰州 的医学人员对这些心脏进行过研究。 冠状动脉固定术、 心脏解剖以及组织标本制作情况如前 所述。 Hearts from men who died of sudden coronary death were studied in a prospective fashion. These hearts were seen in consultation with the medical examiner in the state of Maryland between January 1994 and May 1997. Coronary artery fixation, cardiac dissection, and tissue sampling were performed as previously described. (2) 说明研究或实验之前发生的动作或情况， 用过去完成时； 表示过去以前一直进行的动作， 用过去完成进行时。例如： ①受试者就座至少 5 分钟后，由训练有素的观察者用标准水银血压计测量两次血压。 BP was measured twice by trained observers using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer after the subject had been seated for at least 5 minutes. ② 877 例胃癌患者中，有 9 例原已确诊为恶性贫血。 Among 877 patients with gastric cancer， pernicious anaemia had previously been diagnosed in 9. (3) 说明图表内容和数值表示法等，用一般现在时。 所有标本均在—20℃下冷冻，用酶联免疫吸附测定法测定。 All samples has been frozen at—20℃ until tested by conventional ELISA． ---The abbreviation(s) is /are the same as that/those in Tab. 1. --- Results are expressed as Mean ±SD ---Data are given as the mean number of monocytes per high power field ± standard deviation. 常用结构表达 (1)选择受试者的常见句型： ①入选的标准是： Inclusion／Entry criteria were consisted of? e.g. Inclusion criteria: 5 to 15 years of age and diagnosis of ARF (acute renal failure)
confirmed by 2 or more rheumatologists (风湿病学家), sustained for at least 6 months and two or more visits. e.g. The following inclusion/exclusion criteria were intended to allow entry of most patients with behavioral health problems and to ensure that the study sample was representative of the overall primary and medical care population. ②不得人选的标准包括： Exclusion criteria included? e.g. Other exclusion criteria were only one visit to our Unit and/or follow-up shorter than 6 months. e.g. In the present study systematic random sampling was done to have a higher precision and children in the age group 24-47 months were included to study the coverage of booster doses and the MMR vaccine. ③研究对象的选择是根据： Selection was based on ? Sth. were selected based on ? e.g. Selection was based on examination of postmortem specimens. e.g. Children of age 24-47 months were selected using systematic random sampling. ④人选参加本研究的主要标准为： The major criteria for inclusion in the study were... e.g. The major criteria for inclusion in the study were psychosocial problems such as domestic violence. ⑤...如果有以下任何一条不得参加本项研究： ? were excluded from the study ／ participation ／ enrollment if they had any of the following ?? e.g. All those children were excluded who had a history of an effective antibiotic therapy within one week prior to admission in the hospital? e.g. Because of missing data on several variables, 11 subjects were exclude from the analyses. ⑥...因...被认为不适合：?were considered ineligible for? ⑦...参加本项研究：?were entered into the study． ⑧...选自....：?were recruited from? ⑨从...随机挑选...参加研究：?were selected at random from? (2)表示研究对象分组 ①...被随机分成...： ? were randomized into ?； ? were randomly allocated to ? e.g. Intervention Patients were randomly assigned to a 12 month collaborative care intervention (IMPACT) or usual care for depression. ②...被分成? ： ?were divided into； ?were grouped into ?； ?were stratified into?; ?were classified into?; e.g. Joint features were divided into 5 patterns of presentation: (3) 表示材料来源
①来自：?.was from? ②由...提供：?was provided by? ③购自: ...was purchased from? ④?是从??获得：?was obtained from? ⑤?由?赠送：?was donated by?； ? was the／a gift of／from?； ?was a donation from? ⑥用骨分析器(由夏威夷西门子奥斯汀公司生产)： using Osteo Analyzers (Simens-Osteorn, Wahiwas, Hawaii) ⑦人类免疫缺陷病毒的抗 gp41 小鼠单抗隆抗体(由华盛顿州西雅图市遗传所的 KathyShriver 博士赠送)： mouse monoclonal antibody to gp41 Of HIV (a gift from Dr. Kathy Shriver, Genetic systems, Seattle, WA) (4)表示借鉴他人的实验方法(被动态主句+by/with/using/by using 引出的状语) ①??用??方法分离: ?was isolated by the procedure of? ②??根据??方法制备： ?was prepared according to the method described by ? e.g. Two overlapping rf2a-hybridizing genomic clones were obtained by screening B73 libraries. Both libraries were constructed using the DASHII (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA) vector and were prepared by Pam Close and John Tossberg, respectively. ③按照以前介绍的方法进行 ? was carried out as previously described e.g. Library screening conditions were as described by XU et al. 1997. ④用以前介绍的技术分离??： ?was separated by the technique described previously， ⑤用??方法测定??： ?was determined by；?was measured with? e.g. Inflammatory activity was determined by ESR, CRP, and/or mucoprotein(黏蛋白) levels. ⑥??与??相似： ?was similar to? e.g. We observed maximum MDRTF cases in the age group of 2 - 5 years (30.6%) which was similar to other studies. (5)表示实验标本制备 ①从?取?标本： Samples of?were obtained／taken from? e.g. Reference values of C1r, C2, C5, C7, Properdin, and factors D, H, and I and C3a and C5a have been determined in cord blood samples from healthy term newborns. ②取作??测定?..的标本： Samples for?were obtained／taken from? ③在??条件下收集?? ： ?was collected／harvested under?conditions ④用??..固定??..： ?was fixed with? ⑤??用??染色：?was stained with? ⑥??被包埋在??：?was embedded in?
⑦和以前一样(用以前介绍过的方法)制备?的切片：Sections of?were prepared as before／as previously described． ⑧在??超薄切片机上制作切片： Sections were cut on a?ultramicrotome． ⑨??被切成??厚的切片： ?was sectioned at a thickness of? ?was sliced into sections ⑩??在??中脱水： ?was dehydrated in ? (6)表达稀释、培养等 ①??被稀释到：?was diluted to? e.g. The immunoprecipitates were diluted to 1 ml with 1% Triton X-100/immunoprecipitation buffer with/without iodoacetamide (5–10 mM) and divided into aliquots? ②用??在??(温度)保温??小时： ?was incubated with ? at ? for ? hours e.g. In some experiments, 0.1 ml of 2 mg/ml 6-19 mAb was incubated with 0.1 ml of various concentrations of non-cryogenic IgG3 mAb or PBS at 4°C for 24 h. ③??被种植在?培养基中： ?was grown in?medium ④ 取出一份??: An aliquot of ? was removed． ⑤??被配制成悬浮液，浓度为： ?was suspended to／at a concentration of ⑥??被保存在?(温度)：?was stored at ? (7) 表示年龄与性别 ①在某一年龄，如 45 岁： a 45-year-old patient；a patient aged 45(years)； a patient 45 years of age；at the age of 45(years)； at age 45 ② 在某一年龄以上，如 45 岁以上： over／above／more than the age of 45 years； over／more than 45 years of age； 45 years of age and over；45 years of age or older； older than 45 years；aged over 45 years； aged 45 years and over ③ 在某一年龄以下，如 45 岁以下： under／before／below／less than 45(years)； 45 years of age and under； 45 years of age or less；less than 45 years； younger than 45-year-old ④ 年龄范围，如 45 与 55 岁之间： between the age of 45 and 55(years)； from 45 to 55 years of age； have an age range of 45 to 55 years； aged 45 to 55 years；range in age from 45 to 55 years． ⑤ 平均年龄，如：with a mean age of 45±3 years；
in both age groups (mean?..months)； with an average age of 45.4 years (range 20-60)． e.g. The findings are based on analysis of data from 13,239 subjects, between 20 and 79 years of age, who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1988 to 1994. e.g. In some part of the U.S. as many as half of all women under age 35 have an active case. Yet 99 out 100 women who are HPV-positive will never get cervical cancer. e.g. The fact that cases were included only if they were younger than 15 years of age might have excluded some teenagers and lowered the mean age of the sample. e.g. The mean age of the neonates studied was 10.79±4.68 days. ⑥ 性别比例：male-to-female ratio； with female-male ratio of 2:1; rats of both sexes；mixed-bred dogs of either sex． e.g. Declining frequency of circumcision: implication for changes in the absolute incidence and male to female ratio of UTI in early infancy. e.g. Of 93 children, 62(66.6%) were MDRTF. 24 cases were below 5 years, 26 between 5-10 years and 12 were above 10 years. Male to female ratio was 1.85: 1. (8) 表示诊断 ① 通过?..诊断为??：?was diagnosed by? ②??被诊断为??：?was diagnosed as? ③??.被诊断患??：?was diagnosed with? ④ 根据??作出??诊断：?was diagnosed according to? ⑤ 对??作出诊断：Diagnosis of ? was confirmed／made／established． ⑥??漏诊??：?miss／overlook diagnosis of ? ⑦??被误诊为：? was misdiagnosed as ? ? was mistaken for? ⑧??是诊断??的依据：?was diagnostic of ? e.g. In a recent prospective study of infants younger than 3 months diagnosed with UTI, 22 of 45 infants (46%) had urinary tract abnormalities. e.g. Obstruction of passage of a catheter through esophagus in a newborn is mostly diagnosed as esophageal atresia (EA/食管闭锁) with or without tracheo esophageal fistula(瘘, 瘘管) (TEF). (9) 表示治疗 ①通过(用)??治疗??：be treated by／with? e.g. The majority of milder cases of depression are assumed to be treated by the primary care staff with more severe cases being referred to behavioral health. ② 因??治疗??：be treated for? ③ 首选治疗方法：the treatment of the first choice ④ .......受??治疗：?was on ? therapy ⑤ 门诊治疗：be treated on an outpatient basis ⑥ ??被转诊到??：? was referred to ? e.g. Those patients in need of care would be referred to an outpatient behavioral health clinic within the same building. e.g. A 3-month-old girl was referred to the department of pediatrics. (10)表示实验动物 ① 饲养在??：was bred／fed in? ② 用(在??条件下)?饲养：?was maintained with／under?
③ 术前 12 小时禁食：?was fasted 12 hours prior to operation． ④ ??用??麻醉：?was anesthetized with ? ⑤ ??被关在笼内，随意喂以自来水和?饲料：was caged, fed ad libitum with tap water and ? diet． ⑥??可随意饮水、进食：?was given access to food and water ad libitum． ⑦ 杂交羔羊，雌雄不分：crossbred lambs of either sex ⑧ 本研究采用体重为??雄性新西兰白兔； Male New Zealand white rabbits weighing between ? and ? were used for the study． ⑨??被断头(放血)处死：?was killed by decapitation／cervical dislocation／exsanguination． ⑩ 用??处死??：?was sacrificed with ? (11)表示倍数和比例 ① 一倍：once／one-fold； 两倍：twice／two-fold； 三倍：three times； 2～3 倍：Two or three times／2 or 3 times； 2．5 倍：two and a half times ② A 的长度是 B 的 3 倍(A 比 B 长两倍)： A is 3 times as long as B； the length of A is 3 times the length of B； A is 3 times longer than B． ③ A 增加了两倍(A 增加到 3 倍)： A increases 3 times． ④ 是??的两倍：twice as much as ... e.g. 动脉压可能同时升高到正常值的 2/3 倍。 The arterial pressure might rise simultaneously to about 2/3 times normal． e.g. 左心室的厚度约为右心室的两倍。 The left ventricle has approximately twice the thickness of the right ventricle. e.g. 体循环的容量约为肺循环容量的 7 倍。 The volume of the systemic circulation is about 7 times that of the pulmonary system． e.g. 因此，磺胺嘧啶的磺胺含量是磺胺甲恶唑的 2.5 倍。 Consequently, the sulphonamide levels of sulphadiazine were 2.5 times of sulphamethoxazole. ⑤ A 与 B 的比率(AB 比率，AB 比例为)： ratio of A to B；A to B ratio；A：B ratio； A／B ratio；ratio of the two． e.g. 总胆固醇与高密度脂蛋白胆固醇的比率下降不大。 The ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol fell insignificantly. e.g.男性患病显然多于女性(男女比例为 14：4)。 Notably more males than females were affected (male to female ratio, 14 ：4). e.g.这两种转换途径的比例与转运速率之间并无关系。 There was no correlation between transport rates and the ratio of the two converseon pathways. (12) 表示数值 总数为: a total of； 一系列：a series of; 为期：a period of 最大量值(最小量值)：a maximum／minimum of 发病率为：an incidence of
死亡率为：a mortality of 精确率为：an accuracy of 剂量为：a dose of 平均数为：an average of／a mean of 平均持续(缓解)时间为：an average duration remission of 随访平均间隔时间为：a median follow-up interval of 平均减少： an average reduction of 直径为：a diameter of 易错处总结 a group of 一组 在英美医学杂志中，这些词组作主语时，其谓语动词既 有单数，也有复数。如： 1．A total of l49 patients was followed up for from 1 to 4 years，the average follow-up period being 2.6 years． 2． A total of 134 patients suspected of having pancreatic cancer were given preoperative ultrasonic examinations． 3．A series of 21 patients treated surgically for primary melanoma of the skin of the breast has been studied． 4．A series of 59 consecutive patients with inoperable carcinoma of the prostate were entered into a national cooperative study． 1.6 结果 (Results) （1） 针对研究的问题，逐一列出结果 （2）选择代表性数据，进行必要的统计学方法处理 （3）画出表格和图，要求规范化 小标题—分标题 结果（段首）--- 对照结果、方法、图标、引文和数据（之后次要位置） 除了文字，也可用图表说明问题。 表中已有的数据不要再在正文中重复叙述。 结果部分的时态除知识性说明外，一般用过去式表述。 单位和计量之间要空格， 句号、 逗号后面永远空一格。 百分比和数字之间不空格 （如 in 50%， 而不是 in 50 %） 常用句型 （P43-44） 1.7 讨论（Discussion） 全文的核心部分思考、理论分析和科学推论的过程 感性认识升华为本质的理性认识 观测型论文：讨论部分以概括、归纳为主 实验型论文：讨论部分要体现创造性发现与独到见解 理论型论文：讨论部分要充分表达学术思想和创造性观点 内容 解释结果产生原因，说明是否能论证所提假说； 本研究结果与其他研究结果的异同以及可能的解释， 提出自己的观点和建议， 着重说明本文 创新点所在；本研究的缺陷，指出进一步的研究方向、展望、建议及设想。 三部分 引文：介绍研究背景，引出出题 讨论：阐明本研究的理论、临床意义或使用价值 结论：得出结论和提出建议
※ 讨论在结语时一定要有明确的结论，要避免含 混不清的词语，如 possible, perhaps, probably, maybe, likely 等。 格式 1.标题式 以若干小标题形式分为几个方面或几个问题展开讨 论，一般为三个及以上标题。 (这种方法不仅给人以层次分明、思路清晰的感觉，而且使讨论 部分能紧扣主题、突出重点、避免面面俱到但显得笼统、离题 和分散，对于初学者的写作训练尤为有益。) 2.无标题式 以自然段落按一定逻辑顺序展开。国内外医学论文 多采用这种方法。整个讨论中无任何小标题，一气 呵成。 搜集文献资料应注意以下几方面的内容： ①在方法上沿用前人或在前人的基础上加以改进的； ②在理论认识上支持本文观点的； ③前人研究的结论与自己文章所述不同，需要加以说明的； ④前人对本文所研究的问题存在争议和正在探讨的。将这些资料搜集好后，编好序号，以备 撰写文章时使用。 注意： 1.选择要深入讨论的问题 深度就是论文对于提出问题的研究到了一个什么 样的程度，广度指是否能够从多个角度来分析解释 实验结果。结果中有的是重要的，有的则可一笔带 过。选择合适的结果进行深入讨论，如果你的结果 体现了实验的独特性，是其他研究中没有得到的， 那这个结果就是要重点讨论的问题. e.g. Our present study indicates that poor height increase may be related to the insufficient calcium supply. Bonjour et al found that calcium supplementation had a possible positive effect on skeletal growth. Calcium-enriched foods significantly increased bone mass accrual with a preferential effect seen in the appendicular skeleton. Whether the lower body height related to insufficient calcium supplement or consumption of toxic milk powder warrants further investigation. 上述三个句子就是最常见的表述顺序。 2.对选中的问题按一定层次从多个角度进行讨论，说理要有根据、问题要讲清楚、讲透彻。 选择的问题有时不只一个(多数情况是 2 个以上)，因 此要按一定层次描述清楚。问题无论大小，是否重 要，都要从多个角度展开深入讨论： 1)首先要有类似结果的对比，说明自己结论的独特性； 2)其次要系统阐述为什么会有这样的结果，方法有多种
(从实验设计角度，从理论原理角度，从分析方法角度，或借鉴别人分析方法等)。 3.保持和结果的一致性 讨论部分应以自己的研究为主线, 通过对自己研究的 结果与相关研究结果的比较, 引出研究的结论。该部分的 主要任务是探讨“研究结果”的意义，把研究结果从感性认 识提高到理性认识阶段，以供进一步实践的参考。讨论中 要以结果为依据，合理分析，找出内在的联系，肯定结果。 必须持之有据，言之有理。若涉及对自身研究的评价，宜 取谦虚谨慎和实事求是的态度。此外还应避免离题发挥或 重复他人的见解。但千万不要出现按讨论的内容可以推出 与实验相反的结论这种情形，那证明你的讨论思路是彻底 的失败或你的实验压根儿就是失败的。 4.结尾突出文章的重要性 结果的意义未被讨论或者仅仅有较少的讨论很常 见。如果读者在读完讨论后还在问： “那又怎样？” 那就表明读者对结果的意义没有认识到。因此，通 常讨论的结尾都应该总结科研的重要性，提出自己 的结论，结论应该准确，完整，鲜明。结论的提出 是作者将观察到的现象，实验结果所得到的数据， 通过综合分析，构成若干和观点和论点，然后将数 据贯穿起来，经综合分析，构成总体论点。 时态 回顾研究目的时，通常使用过去时。 如： In this study, the effects of two different learning methods were investigated. 2. 如果作者认为所概述结果的有效性只是针对本次特 定的研究，需用过去时；相反，如果具有普遍的意 义，则用现在时。 如：In the first series of trials, the experimental values were all lower than the theoretical predictions. The experimental and theoretical values for the yields agree well。 3. 阐述由结果得出的推论时，通常使用现在时。 如： The data reported here suggest (These findings support the hypothesis, Our data provide evidence) that the reaction rate may be determined by the amount of oxygen available。 1. This study indicates that 本研究指出 These findings indicate that 这些发现指出 2. It is illustrated that 这就说明 3. These results demonstrate that 这些研究结果证明 4. This study confirms (that) 本研究证实 Data fail to confirm 本资料未能证实 5. On the bases of the authors’ experience, they
believe (that)?根据作者的经验，他们认为 6. It is proposed/recommended that 我们建议（认为） 7. To the author’s knowledge 就作者所知 8. In our experience 根据我们的经验 1. 把名词用作形容词 不用：ATP formation; reaction product 而用：formation of ATP; product of the reaction 2. 单词“this”后面一般要跟名词 不用：This is a fast reaction; This leads us to conclude 而用：This reaction is fast; This observation leads us to conclude 3. 描述实验结果统一使用过去时态 不用：Addition of water gives product. 而用：Addition of water gave product. 4. 尽可能使用主动语态 不用：It was observed that the solution turned red. 而用：the solution turned red. We observed that the solution turned red. 5. 对比句要书写完整 不用：The yield was higher using bromine. 而用：The yield was higher using bromine than chlorine. 注意： （1） 突出自己的创新点，要有自己见解，不要大量引用他人资料 （2） 分析紧扣主题，不要离题发挥 （3） 论证采用已有科学根据的数据，不要以假设证明假设 （4） 评价实事求是，认同相关的研究 不重复在前言或结果部分中的详细数据或其他材料 （5）避免不成熟的论断，暗示要求首创权。理由充分时，可以提出新的假设，但须恰如其 分 P.45 1.8 致谢 (Acknowledgements) 1）对文章有贡献但不属著者权，比如部门领导一般支持； 2）研究进行过技术协助 3）经济支助和材料支持，等等 4）对论文有思想贡献者： “科学顾问” ， “研究计划的重大评论者” ， “数据采集或“临床试 验参与者”等。 （须经同意） 致谢部分的内容与表达 To write a good acknowledgements, you should make it clear, direct and specific. In this section, you may acknowledge: --- financial support, such as grants, contracts or fellowships; --- the source of special equipment, cultures, or materials; ---intellectual contributions, such as an idea, suggestion or interpretation. 表达实例 Acknowledgements (thanks for a grant, an award and technical assistance) This work was supported by research grant HL-33177 from the National Institute of Health. Bethesda, MD, Johannes Czernin is the recipient of a clinician-scientist award from the American Heart Association.
We want to thank Michael Fishbein, MD, for reviewing the pathology specimen. We also want to thank Pon Sumida, Larry Pang. Francine Aguilar, Der-Jenn Liu, Priscilla Comtreras, and Sumon Wongpiya for their excellent technical assistance in performing the PET studies; N. Satyamurthy, PHD, and his cyclotron staff for the preparation of radioisotopes; and Diane Martin and David Twoey for preparing the artwork. Acknowledgements (thanks for a grant, study subjects and support) This study was in part supported by a grant from the Dorothy Wallis Wagner charitable trust, national Institutes of Health R01 HD-32193 and ohns Hopkins Lipid unit Fund. We would like to thank Dr. Peter O.Kwiterovich for providing the study population and for his continuous encouragement and support. Acknowledgements (thanks for materials and technical assistance) We are indebted to Drs. John O’Connor, Robert canfield, Paul Musey, and Del Collins fro analyses for urine specimens; and to Dr. D. Rober McCnnaughey for assistance with the graphic display of the data. 1.9 参考文献（References） 参考文献的编写：号码法、著者法 （1）精选 只列出著者亲自阅读的，直接引用的，具有新颖 性、真实性、代表性的文献。 只列出最新的公开发表的文献。 (公开发表是指在国内外公开发行的报刊或书籍上发表。) （2）著录准确 参考的标准 （A） “生物医学期刊投稿的统一要求” （温哥华格式）---顺序编码制 （B）我国国家标准“文后参考文献著录规则 （GB7714-87） （C) 按所投稿期刊要求的格式处理 温哥华格式的参考文献电子著录要求 Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis [serial online] 1995 Jan-Mar [cited 1996 Jun 5];1(1):[24 screens]. Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/eid.htm （3）刊名和人名的缩写和音译 单个词刊名不缩写。 例如：Radioistopes；Pharmacology 单音节或 5 个或少于 5 个字母组成的词不能缩写。 例如：eye，heart，food 等作者先“姓”后“名” 。
缩写词之间：American Journal of Medicine Am. J. Med. Am J Med 练习 Certain Problems of the Surgical Treatment of Hyperparathyroidism. 甲状旁腺机能亢进手术治疗的几个问题 Platelet Function Studies in Heart Disease 心脏病患者血小板功能的研究 A Report of Rosai-Dorfman 腮腺肿块病报告 Use of Steroid in the Treatment of Clinical Septic Shock 皮质激素治疗败血症休克 Treatment of Psoriasis by Hemodialysis 血液透析治疗牛皮癣 Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Gallstones. 胆石症超声波诊断 把下列句子改写成名词性短语标题 1. Thyroid cancer is a late consequence of head-neck irradiation 改为：Thyroid cancer as a late consequence of head-neck irradiation 2. Coronary heart disease: Overweight and obesity are risk factors 改为：Coronary heart disease: Overweight and obesity as risk factors 3. High blood pressure is a side effect of drugs, poisons, and food 改为：High blood pressure: A side effect of drugs, poisons, and food 4. High uric acid serves as an indicator of cardiovascular disease 改为：High uric acid as an indicator of cardiovascular disease 5. Prostaglandins serve as mediators of inflammation 改为：Prostaglandins as mediators of inflammation