Unit 16 Warm-up （听力材料）
1. abandoned adj. 废弃的，被遗弃的 There is an abandoned house in the forest. The floor and the ceilings are covered in dust, making the place look abandoned. 地板和顶棚布满灰尘，这地方看上去已废弃。 2. knock at/on 敲（门、窗） e.g. We knocked at the door but there was no one there. Gathering that information means knocking on doors and asking people questions.收集信息意味着得去挨家挨户敲门，并向人们提问。 [拓展]:knock sb/sth over 撞到、撞翻； （开车）撞伤，撞死 3.at the speed of 以??的速度
e.g. We were travelling through deep space at the speed of light. The Earth moves round the Sun at a speed of 30 km per second. at a low/ high speed 以低速/高速
3. come into view 出现在视野中 e.g. As we drove on, the hills came into view.
Lesson 1 学案
1.loss 【记一记】 loss n. 失去；遗失；损失 loser n. 失败者；受损失者 【练一练】用上面所给词的正确形式填空。 1. The little girl is looking for his _____ bag at the _____ and Found. 2. He suffered a _____ of 10,000 dollars on the business. 3. He has _____ his memory. 4. There was a silver cup for the winner, and medals for the _____. lose v. 损失；丢失 lost adj. 失去的；丢失的；迷路的
Key: 1. lost; Lost
【适当拓展】 at a loss 感到迷惑；不知所措 be / get lost 迷失；使迷路 be / get lost in thought 陷入沉思 2.burst (burst, burst) vt & vi （使）爆裂；突然出现；爆满 n 突发；爆裂 【读一读】burst 有许多精彩的用法，就看你能不能把它准确地译出。记住它的 用法吧，它可以为你的表达添色不少。 1. After ten days of rain， the river burst its banks and flooded the valley. 2. You’ll burst if you eat any more of that cake. 3. The storm burst and we all got wet. 4. I felt as if my heart would burst with joy. 5. With a final burst of speed， she overtook the leading runner and won the race. Key: 1. 一连下了十天雨之后，河水冲决了堤岸，淹没了河谷。 2. 如果你再吃蛋糕，你的肚子会撑破的。 3. 暴风雨突然袭来，我们都淋湿了。 4. 我觉得自己高兴得心花怒放。 5. 她以最后一股劲猛冲，超越了领先的运动员，赢得了这场赛跑。 【延伸拓展】 burst into tears / laughter 突然大哭/大笑 burst out （laughing） 突然发出(笑声) 如：They burst out laughing. 他们突然放声大笑。 “I don’t believe it!” she burst out angrily.她愤愤然脱口而出： “我才不信呢！ ” 3.preserve 阅读下面 preserve 的释义，并翻译语境展示中的句子。 【释义】a.腌制 【语境展示】 1. The city should take steps to preserve the antient temple. 2. He managed to preserve his independence. b.保护；保存 c. 维护；保持
3. He likes preserved fruit. Key: 1.这个城市应该采取措施保护这座古庙。 2. 他设法保持自己的独立性。 3. 他喜欢吃蜜饯。 【适当拓展】 1. preserve vt. 作为“保护”的意思时，常用于短语 preserve ... from ... 如： Oil preserves metal from rust. 油可保护金属使其免于生锈。 2. preserve 也可作名词，意为“果酱；泡菜” ，通常用复数。 4.-some 意为“引起??的” ，可以构成形容词的后缀。 [例如] tiresome 无聊的，令人厌倦的 troublesome 令人烦恼的，讨厌的 lonesome 寂寞的 [练一练] 用上面所给的形容词填空。 1. His strength was __________, so he always scares me. 2. The boy over there looks so ___________ that he becomes a model in a clothes company. 3. I get ________ when you are not here and there is nobody else to talk to. 4. She has got a _________ child, so she has no time to do anything else. Key: 1. awesome 2. handsome 3. lonesome 4. troubles handsome 英俊的 awesome 令人畏惧的 quarrelsome 好争吵的
难句解析： 1. Pliny described a cloud coming down the mountain, blocking out the sun and burying everything in its path, including whole villages and towns. 普利尼描述 道，当时一团云自山巅而降，遮天蔽日，将所经之处的一切，包括一座座村 庄和城镇统统吞没。 (P6) ⑴ coming down the mountain 是现在分词短语作后置定语，修饰 a cloud，可改写 为定语从句 that was coming down the mountain。
⑵ blocking out the sun and burying everything in its path 是 and 连接的两个并列的 现在分词短语在句中作状语，表结果。 ⑶ including whole villages and towns 相当于 whole villages and towns included。 Including 用法 eg: Ten people died in the accident, including 3 children. =Ten people died in the accident, 3 children included. 2. However, much more than buildings and objects, it is the forms of the people who were caught in the disaster that have made the city a monument to human history. 但 是， 与城里的建筑及物品相比， 那些在那场灾难中遇难的人的轮廓则更使这个城 市成为人类历史上的一座纪念碑。(P6) (1) 该句结构比较复杂。 is the forms of the people ... that ... 是强调句， it 强调主语。 (2) who were caught in the disaster 是 who 引导的限定性定语从句， 修饰先行词 the people。made the city a monument to human history 是 make 的复合结构，the city 是宾语，a monument to human history 是宾语补足语。 Get/be caught in 突然遇到，处于困境中 I was caught in a heavy rain on my way home. Catch sb doing :发现，撞见（某人正在做。。 。） The teacher caught him sleeping in class.
3. This particular sad event left a deep impression on Pliny who had lost an uncle in the event. 巧解句型：who 引导的句子做定语，修饰 Pliny left a deep impression on 给人留下印象 I don’t want to leave any false impression on you. 拓展延伸： impress vt. 给……留下深刻印象 impress sth on sb./one’s memory/ one’s mind 使某人铭记某事；使某人深深意识到某事物 impress sb with sth 以某事物给某人留下深刻印象
be impressed by/at/ with
Eg: I will impress one thing on you. He impressed me with the need to work hard. I was deeply impressed by his speech. 4. One person, sitting alone, looks like he is praying. 巧解句型: sitting alone 作后置定语修饰 person. look like 后接宾语从句作宾语。 Look like She looks so much like her mother. Look at that dark cloud. It looks like rain. It looks like we have got some reward for it.
discourage 观察下列单词，指出他们的相同之处。 discourage; disable; disadvantage; disappear; discover; dishonesty Key: 这几个单词都用了 dis 作为前缀。dis- 前缀，表示“否定，相反” 。. 【词语串烧】 courage n. 勇气；胆量 discourage vt. 使气馁；打消做??的念头；劝阻（行为） discouragement n. 气馁；令人沮丧的事 discouraged adj. 沮丧的（修饰人） ，如： discouraged girls 沮丧的女孩 discouraging adj. 令人沮丧的（修饰物） 如： ， a discouraging situation 令人沮丧的形势 discouragingly adv. 令人沮丧地 【延伸拓展】 discourage sb. from (doing) sth. 打消某人要做??的念头 改错：Her parents tried to discourage her from become a singer. Key: 把 become 改为 becoming。
come across 这个短语常见的用法是“偶然遇见” ，除此之外，它还有一些其他的意思，让我 们一起来学习一下吧！ 猜一下 come across 在下面的这些句子中到底是什么意思呢？从下面四个选 项中选择。 a. 出现于?? b. （想法等）被理解，被接受 c. 走过来 d. （偶然）遇见，看见，发现
（ ） 1. The poor man spoke for a long time but his meaning didn’t really come across. （ ） 2. I came across an old friend yesterday. （ ） 3. Come across to my office this afternoon. （ ） 4. A very good idea came across in his mind. Key: 1. b 2. d 3. c 4. a.
[拓展] come about 发生；come along 到达，跟随，进展；come back 回来；come by 短暂拜访，设法得到；come on (表劝说，鼓励等)来吧，走吧；开始；come out 出来，出版；come through 经历??仍活着；come to 共计，谈到；come up 升 起，被提到；come up with 提出。
1. as a whole 作为整体地，就整体来看地 As a whole, the movie is worth watching. His property was sold as a whole. On the whole 就全体来看，大致上，大体上 His business was, on the whole, successful 2. pillar of society She is our pillar of courage in crisis. 3. this student is named after a purple flower. name after/for 以。。命名 。 John was named after his uncle.
拓展： by name 名叫。。 。 His youngest daughter, Jane, by name, is in primary school. by the name of 名叫。。 。 a man by the name of Lizz in the name of 凭。。之名，以。。名义 。 。 a war waged in the name of liberation 假借解放之名而进行的战争 4． This student has parents who wanted their daughter to be as strong and capable as any boy. able & capable able 侧重于做事的能力，指超过一般水平的能力，只用于有生命力的人或动物 +to do capable 侧重于适应性的能力，指满足一般要求的能力，可用于无生命的事物+of doing eg: Most children are able to walk before they are able to talk. The company was not capable of handling such a large order.
expand 膨胀 【语境展示】 猜一猜下列句子中划线部分的词义。 1. A child’s vocabulary expands through reading. 2. The company has expanded its business in Scotland by building a new factory there. Key：1. 扩大 2. 扩大
【即时总结】 expand vt. 扩大，增加，增强（可以表示扩大尺码、数量、体积、 程度等） ；扩展(业务) 【反义词】 contract 【词形变化】 expansion n. expansive adj. 扩张；膨胀 扩张性的；广阔的
1.feel +名词， 感到某事情感或触摸到某物。 He felt no shame and no regret . Feel = adj Feel lonely The cloth feels very soft . 2. Only 引导的状语从句如放在句前， 后面的句子要部分倒装。 Only by changing the way we live can we save the earth . 3. Reveal 1. 展现,显露出 Little by little he revealed his ambitions.渐渐地,他暴露出他的 野心。 2. 揭示,揭露;暴露;泄露 He revealed the secret by accident.他不小心泄漏了这个秘密。 Further investigation revealed that he was guilty.进一步侦查表明他是有罪的。 1. finally, the world of words was opening up to her. open up 打开，张开 You can open up the box now. The flowers slowly opened up in the warmth of the sun. 2. Now that Helen understood the key to language, she was eager to learn more and use it as much as she could. now that 既然，由于 Now that dinner is ready, wash your hands. the key to 。。的关键 。 the key to success eager adj. be eager for / to do She is eager for success. She is eager to see her son. Tom was eager for you to come to the party. 感觉到怎样. 摸上去如何
1. It was the first time Helen had understood such a complex word — a word for something she couldn’t touch. 这是海伦第一次明白这样一个复杂的词 —— 一个她触摸不到的东西的含义。(P11) It is / was the + 序数词 + time + （that） ... 表示“是第??次做??” 。这 是一个特殊的句型， 当主句用 is 时，that 从句应该用现在完成时；当主句用 was 时，that 从句应该用过去完成时。还可以用 This /That 代替 It。如： It / This / That is the first time she has heard her baby’s heart beat. 她是第一次听到她的宝宝的心跳。 It / This / That was the first time that your grandpa had been to America. 这是你外公第一次去美国。 [译一译] 1. 这是我第二次出国。 2. 昨天他第一次上学迟到。 Key： 1. It / This / That is the second time that I have been abroad. 2. It / This / That was the first time that he had been late for school.
2. “I smelt the violets in her hand and asked, half in words, half in signs, a question which meant, ‘Is love the sweetness of flowers? ’ ‘No, ’said my teacher.” “我闻到她手里的紫罗兰花，一半用单词，一半用手势，我问了这样一个问题， ‘爱是花的甜蜜吗？’ ‘不是， ’我的老师说。 ”(P11) ⑴ 此句中 asked 的宾语是 a question ... flowers， 谓语动词与宾语被其他成分隔开， 其中 which 引导定语从句，修饰先行词 a question； ⑵ half in words, half in signs 在句中作状语，表方式。
1. There was only a little applause when I left the stage in embarrassment in embarrassment, in +n. 作伴随状语 eg: He left home in anxiety.
He did himself in surprise.
2. I came last in the competition. 要点剖析：序数词作状语或表语时，前面通常不加 the. last 在句子中作状语，所 以前面没有定冠词 eg: Who is the first? Who is second? He came out first in the exam.
3. He reminded me in his loud voice that the poetry reading completion, which had forgotten, was that afternoon. 句型解析： 这是一个主从复合句， which 引导的非限制性定语从句修饰 the poetry reading completion remind sb of He rather reminds me of your brother. He reminded me of what I should otherwise have forgotten. remind sb that She reminded me that I hadn’t watered the flowers. remind sb to do Please remind him to start early.
4. The more I looked down, the redder my face became. the +adj. 比较级，the adj.比较级，意为：越。。越。。 。 。 The younger you start learning a language, the better you will speak it.
5. When I left the stage people didn’t applaud very loudly and it came as no surprise that I was last in the competition. 句型解析：it 作形式主语，that 从句为真正主语 Surprise 是可数名词 His success was a great surprise to me.
6. what a clumsy end to an awful day! 这个是一个感叹句省略形式，相当于： What an imperfect end to a very imperfect day it is!
Unit 16 短语归纳
Warm up knock over science fiction Lesson 1 leave an impression on sb. block off 给某人留下某种印象 (开车)把……撞倒 科幻小说
block out 封闭 as if / as though in this(that) way be/get caught in such as… Lesson 2 come across 偶然遇到，找到 好象 (放在 look, sound, smell, feel 等后) 这样(那样) 处于困境; 被卡住
count on 依靠，指望 figure out 理解，想出 put up with 忍受，容忍 stand out 显著，杰出，突出
try out 试验，尝试 stand for 代表
hold up 举……为范例，阻碍，抢刧 end up (in…) 到达或来到某处，达到某种状态，以…...结尾 grow up 长大，成年，成熟，发展 share…with 和…...分享…… Lesson 3
point to/at 指向 burst into sth. 突然……起来 burst out doing 突然……起来 above all 首要, 最重要的，尤其
play with 玩弄，跟…...玩，玩…… feel sorry for…… 为……感到歉意(遗憾) at the same time 同时 set…free 解放，释放，给……自由 be eager to do…/be eager for… 盼望……, 渴望…… pull away 躲开，拉开 pull out 拔掉，驶出，拉出 pull off 驶离 it seems/feels/looks/feels… to sb. that…放在感觉动词之后(根据某人意见/看法) at first 起初，当初
in a flash 即使，立即，立刻 go on 发生，进行 in the light of …… 鉴于，考虑到 occur to sb. 想到，想起 例：An idea has occurred to me. get over 克服，掌握，战胜，恢复常态，完成或结束（必须做的讨厌事） get down to… 开始做….. get together 集合，聚集（人） ，收集（物） get to 到达，影响，使某人恼怒或生气 get round to (处理完其它事后)终于能做…,找出时间做… get up 站起，起来，起床,（指风或海浪）变猛，安排或组织 get in 收集或收获， get on 进展,进步,出人头地,对付,应付,取得进展 get by 好,行,过得去，获得认可，勉强维持，对付 get at 接近,到达,知悉，发现或查明，意指，暗指
Communication Workshop/Language Awareness
refer to… 查阅，提到，涉及，提交 on the other hand 另一方面 by the time + clause 当……时候 remind…about/of… 提醒……想起…… forget (about)…… 忘掉……, 不想…… The+比较级…, the+比较级… 越……, 越…… in embarrassment 尴尬地 in a loud voice 高声地 not…at all 根本没有…… divide…into… 把……分开成…… attract one’s attention (to…) 吸引……注意(到……) pay attention to… 注意……, 全神贯注…… read on/walk on 继续读/继续走 for example 例如 rather than… 不愿，不要，不是 pump up 打气 in the end 在最后 work out 结果，大运动的锻炼，解决，讲算出，算出 feel/be pleased with… 对……高兴，满意 hold one’s attention 让……保持注意 be known by……根据……来判断 add…to…把……加到…… take place 发生 take one’s place (of…) 代替…… make sense 讲得通，能被人们理解
过去完成时是用来表示在过去某一时刻或过去某一动作之前已经完成的动 作或存在的状态。 其构成形式为 “助动词 had +过去分词” 请仔细分析下列句子， 。
注意句中划线部分与黑体部分之间的时间关系。 Most of the guests had left when Tom arrived at the party. By the 13th century, printing had been developed further. 【解析】 句 1 中的黑体部分用了一般过去时，划线部分表示的动作发生在黑体 部分表示的动作之前， 所以主句用过去完成时。句 2 中的黑体部分表示的是过去 某个时间，划线部分的动作发生在这一时间之前，所以主句用过去完成时。 使用过去完成时时，需要注意以下几种情况： 1． 要注意一般过去时与过去完成时的区别。 1） 一般过去时表示在过去时间发生的动作或存在的状态，而过去完成时则表示 在过去某一事件或动作之前已完成的动作或状态，即“过去的过去” 。当强调过 去某一动作发生在另一动作之前时，常用过去完成时。如： The class had already begun when I came to school. 当我到学校的时候， 已经开 始上课了。 2) 一般过去时和过去完成时都可以和确定的表示过去的时间状语连用，但侧重 点有所不同。试比较： ① They had done the work at five o’clock. ② They did the work at five o’clock. 句 1 强调动作的完成，即工作在五点钟已经完成，并未说明工作是什么时候 做的；句 2 明确告诉我们，工作是在五点钟做的。 2． 在含有由 after, as soon as, before, now, now that, when, until 等引导的主从复合 句中，如果主、从句的谓语动词表示的动作均是发生在过去的某一时间，那么先 发生的动作通常用过去完成时，而后发生的动作通常用一般过去时。如： He left the room after he had turned off the lights. 他在关灯后离开了房间。 3． 过去完成时可表示未曾实现的愿望或想法。有此用法的动词有 expect, hope, intend, mean, plan, promise, suppose, think, want 等。如： I had meant to help you, but I was too busy at that moment. 我本想帮助你，但当时太忙了。 4． 过去完成时也用于“hardly ... when ...”,“no sooner ... than ...”, “ It was the
first time that + 从句”等一些固定句式中。如： I had hardly got home when it began to snow. 我一回家就下雪了。 It was the first time that he had ever spoken to a foreigner. 这是他第一次同外国人讲话。 高考真题再现： 1. John, a friend of mine, who got married only last week, spent $3,000 more than he ____ for the wedding. A. will plan C. would plan B. has planned D. had planned (2006 全国卷 II)
2. — Did Linda see the traffic accident?(天津 2006) — No, no sooner ____ than it happened. A. had she gone C. has she gone B. she had gone D. she has gone
3. The play had already been on for quite some time when we ____ at the New Theatre.(浙江 2007) A. have arrived B. arrived C. had arrived D. arrive
4. They became friends again that day. Until then, they ____ to each other for nearly two years. A. didn’t speak C. haven’t spoken (安徽 2007) B. hadn’t spoken D. haven’t been speaking
5. — Did Alan enjoy seeing his old friend yesterday? — Yes, he did. He ____ his old friends for a long time. A. didn’t see C. hasn’t seen B. wouldn’t see D. hadn’t seen (重庆 2007)
6. The young girl sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. She ____ before. (广东 2006) A. hasn’t flown C. hadn’t flown Key: 1-3 DAB 4-6 BDC B. didn’t fly D. wasn’t flying
小议前缀 un前缀 un-表示“不，非” ，加在某些形容词或副词之前，构成反义词。例如： bearable 能忍受的 → unbearable 不能忍受的；certain 确定的 → uncertain 不确 定的。 [记一记] unfair 不公平的 unhealthy 不健康的 unable 不能的，不会的 unacceptable 无法接受的，不受欢迎的 [拓展] 可以构成反义词的常见否定前缀还有： 前 缀 in- (不，非) il- (不，非) im- (不，非) ir- (不，非) non- (无，没有) dis- (不，无) mis- (误解，坏) 例 词 invisible (看不见的), incomplete (不完全的) illegal (非法的), illogical (不合逻辑的) imperfect (不完美的), immoral (不讲道义的) irregular (不规则的), irresistible (不可抵抗的) nonsense (无意义的话), non-smoker (不吸烟的人) disagree (不同意), disadvantage (不利条件) misunderstand (误解)，mislead (误导)