上海外国语大学 2016 年研究生入学考试真题回忆版 翻译硕士英语
一、阅读下面的文章，然后回答后面的问题： Here’s why the American century will survive rise of china. Despite problems, the US is likely to remain more powerful than any single stante in coming decades. In 1941 Time editor Henry Luce proclaimed “the American century”. Some now see this coming to an end 1. of the nation’s economic and political decline. Many point to the example of US failure to convince its allies to stay out of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, Beijing’s rival to the World Bank; but this was 2. an example of a faulty decision than evidence of decline, which raises the question of what is the natural life cycle of a nation. A century is generally the limit for a human organism but countries are social constructs. Rome did not collapse until more than three centuries after it reached its apogee of power in 117AD. After American independence in 1776 Horace Walpole, the British politician, lamented that his nation had been reduced to the level of Sardinia, just as Britain was about to enter the industrial revolution that 3. its second century as a global power. Any effort at assessing American power in the coming decades should 4. how many earlier efforts have been wide of the mark. It is chastening to remember how wildly 5. US estimates of Soviet power in the 1970s and of Japanese power in the 1980s were. Today some see the Chinese as 10ft tall and proclaim this “the Chinese century”. China’s size and relatively rapid economic growth will bring it closer to the US in terms of its power resources in the next few decades. But this does not necessarily mean it will surpass the US in military, economic and soft power. 6. China suffers no big domestic political setback, many projections are simple linear extrapolations of growth rates that are likely to slow in the future.7. , economic projections are one dimensional. They ignore US military and soft power advantages, such as the desire of students around the world to attend US universities. They also overlook China’s geopolitical 8. in the Asian balance of power, compared with America’s relations with Europe, Japan and India, which are likely to remain more favorable. It is not impossible that a challenger such as China, Europe, Russia, India or Brazil will surpass the US in the first half of this century but
it is but not likely. On the question of absolute rather than 9. American decline, the US faces serious problems in areas such as debt, secondary education, income in?equality and political gridlock but these are only part of the picture. On the positive side of the ledger are favourable trends in demography, technology and energy as well as abiding factors such as geography and entrepreneurial culture. The scenarios that could 10. decline include ones in which the US overreacts to terrorist attacks by turning inwards and thus cuts itself off from the strength it obtains from openness. Alternatively it could react by overcommitting itself, and wasting blood and treasure as it did in Vietnam and Iraq. As an overall assessment, describing the 21st century as one of American decline is inaccurate and misleading. Though the US has problems it is not in absolute decline, unlike ancient Rome, and it is likely to remain more powerful than any single state in coming decades. The real problem is not that it will be overtaken by China or another contender but rather that it faces a rise in the power resources of many others — both states and non-state actors such as transnational corporations, terrorist groups and cyber criminals. And it will face an increasing number of global problems that will 11. our ability to organise alliances and networks. 12. to the views of those who proclaim this the Chinese century, we have not entered a post-American world. But the American century of the future will not look the same as in previous decades. The US 13. of the world economy will be smaller than it was in the middle of the past century. Furthermore, the complexity created by the rise of other countries, as well as the increased role of non-state actors, will make it harder for even America, the biggest power, to 14. influence and organize action. Entropy is a greater challenge than China. At the same time, even when the US had its greatest preponderance of power resources, it often failed to secure what it wanted. Those who argue that the disorder of today’s world is much worse than in the past should remember a year such as 1956, when the US was unable to prevent Soviet 15. of a revolt in Hungary; or the Suez invasion by our allies Britain, France and Israel. We must not view the past through rose-tinted glasses. Now, with slightly less preponderance and a much more complex world, the American century will continue for at least a few decades, but it will look very different from when Luce first articulated it. The writer is a professor at Harvard and author of ‘Is the American Century Over?’
1、填空：在文章中空缺部分填上合适的内容。 2、回答问题： What aspects are ignored by many when Did Britain decline after American
independence in 1776?
Cite an example of the American decline According to the author,what are the real problems facing the united states? What does the American century of the future look like? 二、写作： Write a response essay to the following question: Is damage to the environment an inevitable consequence of improving the standard of living ? Explain in an essay format why or why not .
参考答案 阅读理解： 填空： 1.as a result 2.more 3.powered 4.take into account 5.exaggerated 6.Even if 7.Moreover, 8.dis?advantages 9.relative 10.precipitate 11.call on 12.Contrary 13.share 14.wield 15.repression