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专业英语翻译技巧._图文

科 技 英 语 翻 译 的 基 本 技 巧

1)词义引申
2)词量增减 3)词类转换 4)重复译法 5)成分转换 6)成分分译 7)被动语态的译法 8)长句翻译
注意:每个句子 都应正确划分 结构。

翻译技巧(一) 词义引申
词义引申是指改变原文字面意义的翻译方法。词义 引申时,往往可以从词义转译、词义具体化、词义抽象 化和词的搭配四个方面来考虑。
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词义转译
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词义具体化

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词的搭配
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词义抽象化

翻译技巧(一)

词义引申

1. 词义转译 翻译时,遇到一些无法直译或不 宜直译的词或词组,应根据上下文和 逻辑关系,引伸转译。 Like any precision machine, the lathe requires careful treatment. Solar energy seems to offer more hope than any other source of energy.

翻译技巧(一)

词义引申

2. 词义具体化 翻译时,根据汉语的表达习惯,把原文中 某些词义较笼统的词引伸为词义较具体的词。 以动词 cut(切割)为例:
The purpose of a driller is to cut holes .

A single-point cutting tool is to cut threads on engine lathes. Hard metals can be easily cut with grinding wheels。
The milling machine is often employed to cut spur and helical gears。

翻译技巧(一) 3. 词义抽象化

词义引申

把原文中词义较具体的词引申为词义较抽象词, 或把词义较形象的词引申为词义较一般的词。
Steel and cast iron also differ in carbon。 High-speed grinding does not know this disadvantage。 The design of the machine has been improved to answer the challenge of heavy duty climb milling(强力顺铣 )。

翻译技巧(一)
4. 词的搭配

词义引申

遇到动词、形容词与名词搭配时,应根据汉 语的搭配习惯,而不应受原文字面意义的束缚。 Draftsmen make an assembly drawing for the completed product and a detailed drawing for each part。
To be able to read machine drawing,there are a few common terms and symbols with which you should be familiar。 Gear pumps may be classified into two broad categories,external and internal.

翻译技巧(二) 词量增减
词量增加

词量减少

翻译技巧(二) 词量增减
一、词量增加
1. 在抽象名词后 增加名词
2. 在形容词前 名词 3. 增加起语气 连贯作用的词 4. 增加概括词
(1)From the evaporation of water people know that liquids can turn into gases under certain condition。 (2)The major problem in fabrication (制
(1)Piston engines are used for relatively slow planes flying at 20,000 feet or less.

(1)Hydrogen is the simplest substance, atoms of other elements having a more complex structure. (2)The sun warms the earth, which makes

(1)Note that the words “velocity” and “speed” require explanation。 (2)The units of “ampere”,“ohm”, and “volt” are named respectively after

翻译技巧(二) 词量增减
一、词量减少
1 .省略冠词
(1)Any substance is made up of atoms whether it is a solid,a liquid,or a gas。 (2)Practically every river has an upper,a middle,and a lower part。

2.省略代词

(1)By the word “alloy” we mean “mixture of metals”。 (2)Hardened steel is difficult to machine,but having been annealed, it can be

3.省略介词

(1)In winter,it is much colder in the North than it is in the South。 (2)Most substances expand on heating and contract on cooling。

翻译技巧(二) 词量增减
一、词量减少(续)
4.省略连接词 5.省略动词 6.省略名词
(1)Up and down motion can be changed to circular motion. (2)If there were no heat-treatment, metals could not be made so hard.
(1)A square has four equal sides。 (2)Automatic lathes perform basically similar functions but appear in a variety of

(1)Different kinds of matter have different properties. (2)The laws in science are frequently stated in words,but more often in the form of

翻译技巧(三) 词类转换
翻译时可以适当地改变一下原文某些词的 词类,以适应汉语的表达习惯,或达到一定 的修饰目的。这种改变原文词类的译法叫做 词类转换。
译成动词

译成名词

译成形容词

翻译技巧(三) 词类转换
一、 译成汉语动词
1. 名词译成动词 Were there no friction,transmission of motion would be impossible.
2 形容词译成动词 When metals are cut, the shining surface is visible, but it turns grey almost immediately.

3. 介词译成动词
As soon as the supply reverses,the voltage across the thyristor will become positive, turning it on.

翻译技巧(三) 词类转换
二、译成汉语名词
1. 动词译成名词 Grinding is characterized by the rotating

abrasive wheel which is employed as the cutting
tool. 2. 形容词译成名词 The cutting tool must be strong, tough, hard, and wear resistant. 3. 副词译成名词 Low cycle fatigue properties are affected adversely by abusive grinding.

翻译技巧(三) 词类转换
三、译成汉语形容词
1. 名词译成形容词
The electrical conductivity has great importance in selecting electrical materials.

2. 副词译成形容词
The electronic computer is chiefly characterized by its accurate and rapid computations.

翻译技巧(四) 重复译法
重复译法 是指翻译时 重复原文中 某些词,使 译文表达明 确具体。这 是因为有些 词在英语中 是不必重复 的,但在汉 语中却必须 重复,否则 重复省略的部分 就会造成文 理不通或逻 辑混乱。

重复共同修饰的名词 重复共同的动词 重复共同部分 重复共用的宾语

重复共同的定语

翻译技巧(四) 重复译法

一、重复共同部分
1.重复共同修饰的名词 The chief effects of electric currents are the magnetic,heating, and chemical effects. The charges of nucleus and electrons are equal so that the atom is electrically neutral.

翻译技巧(四) 重复译法
2. 重复共同的动词 Alternating current flows first in one direction and

then in the other, the reversals taking place many times a
second. Machining is suited to either brittle or ductile materials preferably the former . 3. 重复共用的宾语

Engineers have to analyze and solve design problems.

翻译技巧(四) 重复译法

4. 重复共同的定语

Metals are the best conductors and gases the poorest conductors of heat. The law of conservation and transformation of energy is the chief basis of engineering practice.

翻译技巧(四) 重复译法

二、重复省略的部分 Water has the property of dissolving sugar, sugar the

property of being dissolved by water.

High voltage is necessary for long transmission line while low voltage for safe use.

翻译技巧(五) 成分转换

转译成主语 转译成宾语

转译成谓语 转译成定语

翻译技巧(五) 成分转换
一 、 转 译 成 主 语

1. 介词宾语转译成主语
( 1 )介词 in 的宾语译成主语 A motor is similar to a generator in construction. ( 2 )被动句的介词宾语译成主语 (a).Two factors,force and distance,are included in unit of work. (b).Very little pressure is required in the grinding process.

翻译技巧(五) 成分转换
一、转译成主语(续)

2. 表语转译成主语
Of all the metals the best conductors are silver,gold and copper.

3. 状语转译成主语
(a).In our workshop the new technological process of production finds application. (b).There are a great number of modernized machine building plants in our country.

翻译技巧(四) 成分转换
二、转译成谓语 1. 主语转译成谓语 The statement of the conservation and transformation of energy is as follows. 2. 表语转译成谓语 We are on the supposition that nothing in the world moves faster than light. 3. 定语转译成谓语
Much strenuous study of liquid hydrogen as a marine fuel is needed before a determination of its value can be made.

翻译技巧(五) 成分转换
三、转译成定语 主语转译成定语 (1).当形容词译成名词,并移作主语时,原来的主语通常都需要译 成定语。 Medium carbon steel is much stronger than low carbon steel. (2)当动词译成名词,并移作主语时,原来的主语一般需要译成 定语。 The vertical spindle drilling machine is characterized by a single vertical spindle rotating in a fixed position.

翻译技巧(五) 成分转换
四、转译成宾语 1. 主语转译成宾语

The maintenance of machines must be paid
attention to.

2. 谓语转译成宾语
The sun affects tremendously both the mind and body of a man.

翻译技巧(六) 成分分译
所谓成分分译就是 改变原文句子结构的 一种译法。这种译法 的要领是:把原文中 较长的句子成分,或 不易安排的句子成分 分出来另作处理,一 般译成汉语短句或独 立语。分译得当可以 使译文层次分明,简 练明确,合乎汉语规 范。

一、主语分译

二、谓语分译

三、定语分译 四、状语分译

翻译技巧(六) 成分分译

一、主语分译
1.An unusually wide feed range adapts the machine to the greatest variety of job。

2.In welding too much current will make it virtually impossible to stay the deposited metal in the right place.

翻译技巧(六) 成分分译
二、谓语分译
1.主语从句的谓语分译

(1)It is obvious that a greater force should be applied to start a motor-car than a motor-cycle。 (2)It is common knowledge that weight is a pull exerted on an object by the earth。
2.被动句的谓语分译 (1)In industry certain mixtures of metals or alloys

are said to have been considerably developed. (2) The temperature at which the melting of a substance
takes place is known to be the melting point of the

substance.

翻译技巧(六) 成分分译

三、定语分译
Semiconductors are a group of materials with their conductivity lying between that of conductors and that of insulators. The flexibility and versatility of numerical control have led to the development of a new type of machine tool called the machining center。

翻译技巧(六) 成分分译

四、状语分译

Petroleum was formed at a later time than coal from plants and animals that lived in shallow seas.

翻译技巧(七) 被动语态的译法
英语中被动语态使用范围很广,凡是在不必或不愿说出或无从 说出施动者以及为了便于连贯上下文或者为了强调动作的承受者等 场合,往往都用被动语态。英语被动句的翻译主要有以下几种情况:

译成汉语被动句

译成汉语主动句

翻译技巧(七) 被动语态的译法 一、译成汉语被动句
(1)The first stage of a rocket is thrown away only minutes after the rocket takes off . (2)The volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure if the temperature is held constant.

翻译技巧(七) 被动语态的译法
(3)The moon, as well as the stars and the sun, is made use of
by the mariner to find his latitude and longitude at sea. Only a small part of sun’s energy reaching the earth is used by us.

(4)Many casting defects are caused by expansion properties of sand.

翻译技巧(七) 被动语态的译法

二、译成汉语主动句
1. 译成有主语的主动句 (1)To explore the moon’s surface. Rockets were launched again and again. (2) Casting quality is influenced by a number of factors such as the nature of metal or alloy cast, properties of mould materials used and the casting process.

翻译技巧(七) 被动语态的译法
2. 译成无主语的主动句 When work is done against friction, heat is produced. By using this new process the loss of metal was reduced to 20 percent. Care should be taken at all times to protect the instrument from dust and damp.

翻译技巧(八) 长句的译法
英语习惯于用长的句子表达比较复杂的概念, 而汉 语则不同,常常使用若干短句, 作层次分明的叙述。因此, 在进行英译汉时, 要特别注意英语和汉语之间的差异, 将 英语的长句分解, 翻译成汉语的短句。
1. 顺序法 2.逆序法

4.综合法 3.分句法

翻译技巧(八) 长句的译法
1. 顺序法
当英语长句的内容的叙述层次与汉语基本一致时, 可 以按照英语原文的顺序翻译成汉语。

Moving around the nucleus are extremely tiny particles, called electrons, which revolve around the nucleus in much the same way as the nine planets do around the sun.
Although there is reason to hope that superconductivity may one day be found to exist in some material at room temperature, for the moment it is a phenomenon of the utterly cold.

翻译技巧(八) 长句的译法
2.逆序法
英语有些长句的表达次序与汉语表达习惯不同, 甚 至完全相反, 这时必须从原文后面开始翻译。

To obtain close tolerances in milling, it is important that the machine be in good mechanical condition, that the workpiece be of suitable structure and composition, that the cutter be properly selected, and that feed and speed be appropriate to the particular application.

翻译技巧(八) 长句的译法
3.分句法
有时英语长句中主语或主句与修饰词的关系并不十分 密切, 翻译时可以按照汉语多用短句的习惯, 把长句的 从句或短语化成句子, 分开来叙述,为了使语意连贯, 有 时需要适当增加词语。

It is very important that a machine element be made of a material that has properties suitable for the condition of service as it is for the loads and stresses to be accurately determined.

翻译技巧(八) 长句的译法
4.综合法
在翻译一个英语长句时, 并不只是单纯地使用一种翻译 方法, 而是要求我们把各种方法综合使用。

Neither the direct transformation of heat into electric energy, nor the direct transformation of mechanical friction of pressure into electric energy, can as yet be considered practical for quantity and for economical generation of electric energy for our everyday use .

科 技 英 语 翻 译 的 基 本 技 巧

1)词义引申
2)词量增减 3)词类转换 4)成分转换 5)成分分译 6)重复译法 7)被动语态的译法 8)长句翻译
注意:每个句子 都应正确划分 结构。
总结词汇

machine /milling machine /machining center the vertical spindle drilling machine lathe /engine lathe/ piston engine a single-point cutting tool thread/ cut thread gear/ Gear pump / spur and helical gears crankshaft instrument drill/driller grind/grinding /grinding wheel /abrasive wheel / abusive grinding cast / cast iron/ casting/ casting process/casting quality heat-treatmen/anneal

fabrication numerical control contamination longitude generator electric current/charge/voltage nucleus/ neutral/ electron/neutron conductor /conductivity / electrical conductivity semiconductors/superconductivity/insulator magnetic friction mould material brittle or ductile/ flexibility and versatility/ wear resistant conservation dissolving sugar loads assembly drawing


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