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一维PSD位移设计中英文对照


The one-dimensional PSD displacement measurement design

Abstract
PSD: semiconductor photoelectric position sensor (PSD) is a new type of semiconductor photoelectric position sensitive detector based on lateral photoelectric effect. In addition to itspositioning performance with photodiode array and CCD, also has the advantages of high sensitivity, high resolution, fast response characteristics, such as simple circuit structure, so ithas been valued. The development trend of PSD is a high resolution, high linearity, fast response, and the signal collection and processing of multi function integrated. In this paper,the one-dimensional PSD position sensor based on non contact measuring displacement, the realization of a simple application of PSD. Keywords: semiconductor lateral photoelectric effect of PSD position sensor conversion circuitof one dimensional PSD non-contact displacement measurement emiconductor photoelectric position sensor (PSD:Position Sensitive Device) is a kind ofphotoelectric distance measuring device. In addition to its location with photodiode array and CCD of distortion, but also has the advantages of high sensitivity, high resolution, fast response speed and signal collection and processing of multi function integrated. PSD based on non uniform semiconductor "lateral photoelectric effect", achieve the device on the incident light or particle position sensitive. PSD consists of four parts: PSD sensor, electronicprocessing element, semiconductor laser source, a bracket (fixed position relative to a PSD optical sensor with a laser light source). The main feature of PSD is the location of high resolution, fast response speed, wide spectral response, high reliability, simple processing circuit, a photosensitive surface without blind area, which can simultaneously detect the position of the light intensity, the measurement result has nothing to do with the spot size and shape. Because of its unique properties, which can be a continuous signal changes in target position, get more and more extensive application in the position, distance, displacement,angle and its related quantity detection. The PSD optical experiments, read out the changes in voltage value according to, can know the moving and changing objects, in order to understand the design and practical application, structure principle and electronic circuit of the photoelectric sensor operational amplifier. Due to the utility model has the advantages ofhigh precision, the measurement object, even if the measurement object position with minor changes, the voltage value will have great changes. 1、 basic principle PSD is a non based on lateral photoelectric effect, the incident light or particle positionsensitive photoelectric device. A photosensitive surface of PSD light spot position can beconverted to electrical signals, when a beam of light shot to the photosensitive surface of PSD, will be different between electrodes on the same side of the current flows, the voltage or current with the lateral photoelectric effect to change the position of light spot and the phenomenon of semiconductor. The irradiation position so using lateral photoelectric effect of PSD on PN junction can detect incident light spot. It does not want to conventional silicon photoconductive detectors that, only as a photoelectric conversion, optical coupling, optical receiver and the application of light

intensity measurement etc, and can be used directly tomeasure position, distance, height, angle, and trajectory. It's P N junction structure, working condition, the photoelectric conversion principle and common photosensitive diode is similar, but its working principle and common photosensitive diode completely different. Ordinary photosensitive diode is longitudinal photoelectric effect of P-N junction or Schottky junction based, and PSD is the lateral photoelectric effect of P-Njunction or Schottky junction based, in fact is a comprehensive longitudinal and lateralphotoelectric effect photoelectric effect. Ordinary photosensitive diode size reaction byincident light current intensity, is a photoelectric converter device and control device. Theposition sensitive detector (PSD) is not only the photoelectric converter, more important is thephotocurrent distribution device through the electrode set reasonable shunt layer and collecting current, determine the location of the incident light according to the current signal of each electrode collected ratio. In this sense, PSD is the common photosensitive diode further refined products. PIN diode type PSD is equivalent to inserting high resistance between the P layer and N layer of P-N structure based on the intrinsic layer (I layer), when the voltage biasagainst with not too large when I layer has been exhausted, so the barrier width increase greatly. And close to the quantum efficiency of I and saturated carrier motion in the depletion region, and the barrier width can reduce the barrier capacitance. Therefore, the introduction of the I layer can significantly shorten the device response time. PSD can be divided into one-dimensional and two-dimensional PSD PSD. The one-dimensional position coordinates of one-dimensional PSD can measure the spot, 2D PSDplanar position coordinates of the metering point. 2、 Structure and measuring principle PSD consists of P, I, N of three layers, the top layer is P layer, P layer is a photosensitivesurface, the lower layer is N layer is inserted in the middle, high resistivity thick I layer, the formation of P-I-N structure. Characteristic of this structure is the I layer of the depletion layeris wide, the lower junction capacitance, photocurrent nearly all in I depletion layer regionproduced, no diffusion. Optical current component, so on each side of a signal output; I zone is thicker but has ahigher photoelectric conversion efficiency, higher sensitivity and response speed; the bottom of N leads to a common electrode, used to add reverse bias voltage. Because of the performance of PSD is superior under a reverse bias bias condition of PSD, the application will be PSD is reverse biased state. When the incident light spot exposure to PSD on the photosensitive surface of a certain point,assuming the current to produce the total light life for I0. Because of the existence oftransverse potential in the incident light spot to signal between the electrodes, if in the two signal electrode is connected to a load resistor, the photocurrent will respectively flows into two signal electrode, which electrode were obtained from the signal of photoelectric flow I1 and I2. Obviously, I1 and I2 and equal to the photocurrent of I0, while I1 and I2 shunt relationshipdepends on the incident light spot position to the two signal electrode between the equivalent resistance of R1 and R2. The R1 and R2 values depend on the incident light spot position.Assuming the load resistor RL resistance compared with R1 and R2 can be neglected, there are:

In the formula, L is the midpoint of PSD to thesignal electrode distance, X distance PSD from the mid point of the incident light spot. Type (1-1) show that, the two signal electrode outputphotocurrent ratio of incident light spot to the reciprocal of the inter electrode distance ratio.The I0= I1+I2 type (1.1.1) and simultaneous to:

From the above two type can be seen when the incident light spot position is fixed, the output of the PSD single electrode current and the incident light intensity is proportional to. When aconstant incident light intensity, distance x is a linear relationship between the output current and the incident light spot a single electrode distance of PSD center. If the output current of two signal electrodes were treated as follows:

Then the results relate only to the position of the light spot coordinates x, and has nothing to do with the incident light intensity, when PSD became only the sensitive elements of the incident light spot position. Px is known as the location of the output signal of one dimensional PSD. 3、 Design of displacement measurement The principle of one dimension PSD displacement measurement Assuming that the measured surface in the mobile converging lens laser shaft direction beforethe position of the light spot is X2, and the corresponding object plane position is Y2, after moving the position of the light spot is x1, the corresponding object plane position for Y1, x1,X2, by type

Obtained were calculated, and then calculate the Y1 and Y2, then the surface

displacement ofy can be expressed as delta y =y-y2. type in D. As the converging lens laser axis and theintersection of receiving the optical axis of the lens to the receiving distance lens must face;D1 receiving lens like principal surface to the imaging center distance; theta is the angle between the axis of laser beam and receiving the optical axis of the lens; angle gamma forPSD sensitive surface and receiving the optical axis of the lens, so that the work of PSDsurface and the like are superposed, ensuring for the displacement of different Y scope of work, like point along the working face PSD mobile. Among them, do, d 1, theta, gamma have been identified in the optical design and processing, is a known quantity, as long as the accurate measurement of accurate measurement, measured PSD bipolar output currentbefore and after the mobile delta y surface, can be produced by type

To calculate the measured plane displacement delta y, realize the non-contact measuringmicro displacement, the measured surface roughness etc.. And the key to accurate measurement of PSD bipolar current is a pre amplifier circuit design. Displacement detecting sensor to measure the experimental apparatus is shown in figure 5.Punctate semiconductor laser through the lens L1, converge on the measured object surface to form the incident light spot, the incident light spot is reflected, part of the reflected lightreceived lens L2 objects will be measured on the surface of the measured o bject is placed(two-dimension micro displacement platform, the platform can reach x, before and after thedirection of Y axis feed, the amount of feed per ring (2.5 m) spot imaging on PSD sensitive surface x, PSD will have a light the current signal detection circuit, after processing and after calculation can be obtained by measuring the distance of objects D. First of all, the initial position adjustment point of semiconductor lasers, so that the emitted light after receiving lens imaging in the center position of the PSD, so that the output of the circuit is 0, then the two dimensional precision micro displacement platform on the measured object displacement (each 2.5 mu m), record every time output. Table 5 gives theexperimental object distance is about 3cm, like distance is about 115cm, the range for theexperimental conditions under each shift + 0.5mm, several groups of data of 10 mu m records.From the data in Table 3 after calculation processing shows, the average error ofdisplacement measurement of the displacement sensor system is 0.44, the measurement accuracy is 2.5 m, the nonlinear error of 0.112%, meet the general displacementmeasurement, the precise roundness error, vibration and so on, has the performance isexcellent. Circuit and analysis of one-dimensional PSD transform

The one-dimensional PSD conversion circuit principle diagram

According to the principle of PSD and the spot position (x, y) expression, the first response toPSD conversion circuit output spot flow of current to voltage conversion amplifier, according to the conversion formula requirements, by adding, reducing operational amplifier presetaddition and subtraction, and finally through the analog division device division, received position signal is independent of the size of light the. Figure Rf on to the input level size; V6,V13, V14 analog divider; Ai is the low drift operational amplifier. At the object center is equipped with a high luminous two tubes, PSD sensor installed on the fretting. The working platform; emit beams through optical system focus, will receive the photosensitive spotimaging on placed in the focal plane of the PSD surface, the spot signal is converted to electrical signals through the pre. Then, through the A / D sampling, input to the computer for processing. In order to determine the PSD alignment position at a point in the object plane.When the alignment position of the mobile in the measurement range, the spot with PSD twoand the distance between the electrodes to change, make the change of two electrode outputcurrents with spot position change, so by measuring sensor with two electrode output current size, can know PSD and alignment of a position relative to the object plane. According to the principle of PSD and the spot position (x, y) expression, the first response toPSD conversion circuit output spot flow of current to voltage conversion amplifier, according to the conversion formula requirements, by adding, reducing operational amplifier presetaddition and subtraction, and finally through the analog division device division, received position signal is independent of the size of light the. Figure Rf on to the input level size; V6,V13, V14 analog divider; Ai is the low drift operational amplifier. At the object center is equipped with a high luminous two tubes, PSD sensor installed on the fretting. The working platform; emit beams through optical system focus, will receive the photosensitive spotimaging on placed in the focal plane of the PSD surface, the spot signal is converted to electrical signals through the pre. Then, through the A / D sampling, input to the computer for processing. In order to determine the PSD alignment position at a point in the object plane.When the alignment position of the mobile in the measurement range, the spot with PSD twoand the distance between the electrodes to change, make the change of two electrode outputcurrents with spot position change, so by measuring sensor with two electrode output current size, can know PSD and alignment of a position relative to the object plane.

4、 Conclusion analysis (1) the nonlinear PSD devices. Because of the inherent characteristics of PSD devices to decide the nonlinearity, the main shortcomings are also PSD. It mainly depends on thelinearity in the manufacturing process of surface diffusion layer and the bottom layer resistivityuniformity, a variety of factors and the effective photosensitive area, but also nonlinear and noaccurate formula as the basis. Generally speaking, in the distance the device center 2? 3 of the range of linearity. The more close to the edge linearity worse. We should therefore try to use in the practical application of regional good linearity, makes its nonlinear restrictions on the minimum. (2)Cause of measurement error and other factors, such as changes, various vibration andtemperature produced in the testing environment and processing circuit parameter selectionwe need to take the necessary measures to overcome and improve test accuracy.

一维 PSD 位移设计
摘要 半导体光电位置传感器(即 PSD)是一种基于横向光电效应的新型半导体光电位置敏感 传感器。它除了具有光电二极管阵列和 CCD 的定位性能外,还具有灵敏度高、分辨率高、 响应速度快、电路配置简单等特点,因而被人们所重视。PSD 的发展趋势是高分辨率、高线 性度、快响应、及信号采集处理等多功能集成。 本文基于一维 PSD 位置传感器非接触性测 量物体位移,实现对 PSD 的简单应用。 关键词: 半导体 横向光电效应 PSD 位置传感器 转换电路 一维 PSD 非接触性位 移测量 引言 半导体光电位置传感器(即 PSD:Position Sensitive Device)是一种光电测距器件。它除了具 有光电二极管阵列和 CCD 的定位性歪,还具有灵敏度高,分辨率高,响应速度快及信号采 集处理等多功能集成。PSD 基于非均匀半导体"横向光电效应",达到器件对入射光或粒子位 置敏感。PSD 由四部分组成:PSD 传感器、电子处理 元件、半导体激光源、支架(固定 PSD 光传感器与激光光源相对位置) 。PSD 的主要特点是位置分辨率高、响应速度快、光谱响应 范围宽、可靠性高,处理电路简单、光敏面内无盲区,可同时检测位置的光强,测量结果与 光斑尺寸和形状无关 。由于其具有特有的性能,因而能获得目标位置连续变化的信号,在 位置 、 位移、距离、角度及其相关量的检测中获得越来越广泛的应用。在 PSD 光电实验中, 根据读出电压值的变化, 可以知道物体的运动变化, 从而达到了解光电传感器的构造原理和 电子线路的设计与实践 、运算放大器的应用 。由 于其具有精度高的优点,在测量物体时, 即使测量物体位置有微小的变化,电压值都会有很明显的变化。 1、基本原理 PSD 是一种基于非均匀半导体横向光电效应的、 对入射光或粒子位置敏感的光电器件。 PSD 的光敏面能将光点位置转化为电信号,当一束光射到 PSD 的光敏面上时,在同一面上的不 同电极之间将会有电流流过, 这种电压或电流随着光点的位置变化的现象时半导体的横向光 电效应。因此利用 PSD 的 PN 结上的横向光电效应可以检测入射光点的照射位置。它不想传 统的硅光电探测器那样,只能作为光电转换,光电耦合,光接收和光强测量等方面的应用, 而能直接用来测量位置、距离、高度、角度、和运动轨迹。 它的 P-N 结结构、工作状态、光电转换原理等与普通光敏二极管类似,但它的工作原理 与普通光敏二极管完全不同。 普通光敏二极管是基于 P-N 结或肖特基结的纵向光电效应, 而

PSD 是基于 P-N 结或肖特基结的横向光电效应, 事实上是纵向光电效应和横向光电效应的综 合。普通光敏二极管通过光电流的大小反应入射光的强弱,是光电转换器件和控制器件。而 位置敏感探测器(PSD)不仅是光电转换器,更重要的是光电流分配器件,通过合理设置分 流层和收集电流的电极, 根据各电极上收集到的电流信号的比例确定入射光的位置。 从这个 意义上说,PSD 是普通光敏二极管进一步细化的产品。基于 PIN 二极管型的 PSD 相当于在 P-N 结构的 P 层与 N 层之间插入高阻本征层(I 层) ,当加不太大的反偏电压时 I 层就己全部 耗尽,于是势垒宽度大大增加。而在势垒区内有接近 I 的量子效率和饱和载流子运动,且势 垒区宽度可减小势垒电容。因此,I 层的引入可以显著地缩短器件的响应时间。 PSD 可分为一维 PSD 和二维 PSD。 一维 PSD 可以测定光点的一维位置坐标, 二维 PSD 可测 光点的平面位置坐标。 2、结构及测量原理 如图 l 所示。PSD 由 P、I、N 三层构成,最上一层是 P 层,P 层为感光面,下层 为 N 层, 中间插入较厚的高阻 I 层, 形成 P-I-N 结构。此结构的特点是 I 层的耗尽层较宽、 结电容较小,光生电流子几乎全部都在 I 层耗尽层区中产生,没有扩散分量的光电流,因此 两边各有一个信号输出电极;I 区较厚但具有更高的光电转换效率,更高的灵敏度和响应速 度;底层 N 引出一个公共电极,用来加反偏电压。由于反向偏置下的 PSD 性能优于零偏状 态下 PSD 的性能,在应用中将 PSD 处于反向偏置状态。 当入射光点照射到 PSD 光敏面上某一点时,假设产生的总的光生电流为 I0。由于在入射 光点到信号电极间存在横向电势, 若在两个信号电极上接上负载电阻, 光电流将分别流向两 个信号电极,从而从信号电极上分别得到光电流 I1 和 I2。显然,I1 和 I2 之和等于光生电流 I0,而 I1 和 I2 的分流关系取决于入射光点位置到两个信号电极间的等效电阻 R1 和 R2。如 果 PSD 表面层的电阻是均匀的,则 PSD 的等效电路为图 1(b)所示,其中 R1 和 R2 的值取 决于入射光点的位置。 假设负载电阻 RL 阻值相对于 R1 和 R2 可以忽略,则有:

式中, L 为 PSD 中点到信号电极的距离, x 为入射光点距 PSD 中点的距离。 式 (1-1) 表明, 两个信号电极的输出光电流之比为入射光点到该电极间距离之比的倒数。将 I0= I1+I2 与式 (1.1.1)联立得:

从以上两式可以看出,当入射光点位置固定时,PSD 的单个电极输出电流与入射光强度成 正比。 而当入射光强度不变时, 单个电极的输出电流与入射光点距 PSD 中心的距离 x 呈线性 关系。若将两个信号电极的输出电流作如下处理:

则得到的结果只与光点的位置坐标 x 有关, 而与入射光强度无关, 此时 PSD 就成为仅对入 射光点位置敏感的器件。Px 称为一维 PSD 的位置输出信号。 3、位移测量设计 设被测面在沿会聚透镜激光轴轴方向的移动前光点的位置为 x2,, 对应物面位置为 y2, 移动后光点的位置为 x1,对应物面位置为 y1,x1,x2,可由式

分别计算求出, 进而计算出 y1 和 y2, 则物面位移 △y 可表示为 △y =y-y2. 式中 d。 为会聚透镜激光轴和接收透镜光轴的交点到接 收透镜物方主面的距离; d1 接收透镜像方 主面到成像中心点的距离; θ 为激光束光轴与接收透镜光轴之间的夹角;γ 为 PSD 敏感 面与接收透镜光轴的夹角, 使 PSD 工作面与 像面重合 , 保证了对于工作范围内不同的 位移 △y , 像点沿 着 PSD 工作面移动。其中, do, d 1, θ , γ 在光学设计和加工 后已经确定,是已知量,可见只要精确测量 ,即精确测量 被测面移动 △y 前后的 PSD 两极输出电流, 就可以由式

计算出被测面的位移量 △y , 实现被测面的 微位移、 粗糙度等的非接触检测。而精确 测量 PSD 两极电流的关键就是前置放大电路的设计。 位移检测传感器测量实验装置图如图 5 所示。点状半导体激光器发出的激光经过透镜 L1, 汇聚于被测物体表面即形成入射光点,该入射光点被反射,部分反射光经接收透镜 L2 将被测 物体表面上(被测物体被置于二维微位移平台上,该平台能够 x,y 轴方向前后进给,进给量为 每圈(2.5μ m)的光斑成像于 PSD 敏感表面上 x 处,PSD 上将产生相应的光电流信号,经过检测 电路处理进而经过计算可以得出被测物体的距离 d. 首先,调整点状半导体激光器的初始位置,使其发出的光线经过接收透镜成像在 PSD 的中 心位置,这样电路的输出就为 0,然后通过精密二维微位移平台对被测物体进行位移 (每次 2.5μ m),记录每次输出。 表 5 给出在实验物距离约为 3cm,像相距约为 115cm,量程为±0.5mm 的实验条件下,每移 10μ m 记录的几组数据。 由表 3 中数据经过计算处理可知,该位移检测传 感器系统的位移量的测量平均误差为 0.44,测量精度为 2.5μ m,非线性误差为 0.112%,满足 一般较精密的位移、圆度误差、振动等的测量,具有较优良的性能. 一维 PSD 转换电路及分析

一维 PSD 转换电路原理图 根据 PSD 原理及光点位置(x,y)的表达式,转换电路首先应对 PSD 输出的光点流进行 电流-电压转换放大,再按转换公式的要求,通过加、减运算放大器进行预置相加和相减运 算,最后通过模拟除法器相除,得到与光能大小无关的位置信号。图中 Rf 之取决于输入电 平的大小;V6、V13、V14 为模拟除法器;Ai 为低漂移运算放大器。对准物体的中心装有一 高的发光二级管,PSD 传感器安装于微动。工作平台上;二极管发出的光束经过光学系统聚 焦后,将光点成像于放置在透镜焦平面上的 PSD 的接收光敏面上,这个光点信号经过前置 转换为电信号。然后,通过 A/D 采样,送入到计算机进行处理。从而确定 PSD 对准物体平 面上某一点的位置。 当对准位置在测量范围内移动时, 光斑与 PSD 两电极间的距离发生变化, 使两电极输出电流随其光斑位置的变化而变化, 因此通过测定传感器两电极输出电流的大小, 便可知道 PSD 与对准物体平面上的某一点位置相对应。 4、结论分析 (1)PSD 器件的非线性。由于 PSD 器件的固有特性决定其存在非线性,也是 PSD 的主要不 足之处。 它的线性度主要取决于在制造过程中表面扩散层和底层材料电阻率的均匀性, 以及 有效的感光面积等多种因素,而且非线性并没有准确的公式作为依据。 一般而言,在距离器件 中心的范围内的线性度较好。 越靠近边缘线性度越差。 因此在实际应用中应尽量选用线性度 较好的区域,使其非线性限制在最小。 (2)造成测量误差的还有其它因素, 如测试环境中产生的各种震动和温度的变化、 以及 处理电路的参数选择等都需要我们采取必要的措施来克服; 从而提高试验精度。


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