[00:28.49]Test Two [00:29.81]SECTION A MINI-LECTURE [00:33.05]In this section, you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. [00:38.05]While listening,take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, [00:43.74]but you will need them to complete a gap-filling task after the mini-lecture. [00:47.56]When the lecture is over,you’ll be given two minutes to check your notes, [00:52.49]and another 10 minutes to complete the gap-filling task. [00:55.66]Now listen to the mini-lecture. [00:58.18]In this lecture, we’ll discuss English vocabulary. First, let’s define the term “vocabulary”. [01:05.06]What is vocabulary? It usually refers to a complete inventory of the words in a language. [01:10.98]But it may also refer to the words and phrases used in the variants of a language, such as dialect, register, [01:17.64]terminology, etc. The vocabulary can be divided into active vocabulary and passive vocabulary. [01:24.43]The active vocabulary refers to lexical items which a person uses. [01:28.80]The passive vocabulary refers to the words which he understands. [01:33.06]The English vocabulary is characterized by a mixture of native words and borrowed words. [01:38.21]First, about the native words. Most of the native words are of Anglo-Saxon origin. [01:43.56]They form the basic word stock of the English language. In the native stock, [01:48.38]we find words denoting the commonest things necessary for life, [01:52.05]such as those words denoting natural phenomena,divisions of the year, parts of the body, [01:57.96]animals, foodstuffs, trees, fruits, human activity. [02:02.23]And also other words denoting the most indispensable things. [02:05.68]The native stock also includes auxiliary and modal verbs, [02:09.61]pronouns, most numerals, prepositions and conjunctions. Though they are small in number, [02:17.38]these words play no small part in linguistic performance and communication. [02:20.77]Next, we come to borrowed words. Borrowed words are also known as loan-words. [02:27.00]They refer to linguistic forms taken over by one language or dialect from another. [02:31.93]The English vocabulary has replenished itself by continually [02:36.08]taking over words from other languages over the centuries. [02:39.04]The adoption of foreign words into the English language began even before the English came to England. [02:45.27]We know that the Angles and Saxons formed a part of the Germanic people. [02:49.21]Long before the Anglo-Saxons came to England, [02:52.38]the Germanic people had been in contact with the civilization of Rome. [02:55.98]Thus, Words of Latin origin denoting objects belonging to
[03:00.60]the Roman civilization gradually found their way into the English language. [03:04.22]For example, wine, butter, cheese, inch, mile, mint, etc. [03:11.88]When the English, or the Anglo-Saxons, were settled in England, they continued to borrow words from Latin, [03:18.10]especially after Roman Christianity was introduced into the island in the sixth and seventh centuries. [03:23.90]A considerable number of Latin words were adopted into the English language. [03:28.06]These words chiefly signify things connected with religion or the services of the church, [03:33.53]such as bishop, candle, creed, monk, priest, and a great many others. [03:40.20]The English vocabulary also owes a great deal to the Danes and Northmen. [03:46.55]From these settlers, English adopted a surprising number of words of [03:50.04]Scandinavian origin that belong to the core-vocabulary today. [03:53.87]Such as they, them, their, both, ill, die, egg, knife, low, skill, take, till, though, want, etc. [04:08.53]The Norman Conquest in 1066 introduced a large number of French words into the English vocabulary. [04:15.53]French adoptions were found in almost every section of the vocabulary. [04:19.24]For example, in the section of law, there are such words as justice, evidence, pardon; [04:25.48]in the section of warfare, there are conquer, victory; in religion, there are grace, repent, sacrifice; [04:33.69]in architecture, there are castle, pillar, tower; in finance, there are pay, rent, ransom; [04:42.65]in rank, there are prince, princess; in clothing, there are collar, mantlet; in food, [04:51.29]there are dinner, feast, sauce, etc. In the first 43 lines of the Prologue to Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, [04:59.99]there are 39 words of French origin. We can see the English vocabulary takes in so many words from French. [05:06.98]And in the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Renaissance swept Europe. [05:12.56]It was a revival of art and literature based on ancient Greek learning. [05:16.39]The Renaissance opened up a new source for the English vocabulary to enrich itself. [05:21.09]And English borrowed many words from Greek through the medium of Latin, such as crisis, topic, coma, etc. [05:29.30]a wide range of learned affixes are also from Greek, such as [05:34.22]bio-, geo-, hydro-, auto-, homo-, para-, -ism, -logy, -graph, -meter, -gram and many others. [05:45.92]From the sixteenth century forward, there was a great increase in the number of languages, [05:50.73]and English borrowed many words from these languages. [05:53.26]French continued to provide a considerable number of new words, for example, [05:58.29]trophy, vase, moustache, unique, soup. English borrowed a lot of words from
Italian in the field of art, [06:06.28]music and literature, for example, model, sonnet, opera, quartet, etc. [06:11.96]there was also a Spanish element in English, [06:15.32]for example, potato, cargo, parade, cigar. [06:19.81]Besides, German, Portuguese and Dutch were also fertile sources of loan words, [06:24.62]for example, dock, zinc and plunder are from German; cobra, buffalo and pagoda are from Portuguese; [06:32.72]tackle, buoy and skipper are from Dutch. [06:36.11]At the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, with a growth of international [06:40.91]trade and the urge to colonize the known world, [06:43.87]English made a number of direct adoptions from languages spoken outside Europe. [06:48.36]Some examples are: sultan and ghoul from Arabic, lichi and typhoon from Chinese, [06:55.14]shah and shawl from Persian, yoghurt from Turkish, czar from Russian. [07:02.14]Since the end of the Second World War, still more loan words have been incorporated into the English vocabulary [07:09.07]For example, cuisine from French, sushi from Japanese, mao tai from Chinese, and many others. [07:16.39]In the twentieth century, [07:17.98]it should be observed that English has created many words out of Latin and Greek elements, [07:22.36]especially in the field of science and technology, [07:25.09]such as antibiotic, astronaut, auto-visual, autolysis, etc. [07:32.52]Although all these Latin and Greek derived words are distinctly learned or technical, they do not seem [07:39.75]and, in this respect, they are very different from the recent loanwords from living languages, [07:44.56]such as cappuccino, angst, and sputnik. [07:48.27]Thus, for the Modern English period a distinction must be made [07:52.09]between the adoptions from living languages [07:54.29]and the formations derived from the two classical languages. [07:57.34]That’s the end of today’s lecture. Next time we’ll concentrate on English word formation. [08:02.49]Thank you for your attention! [10:08.00]Section B INTERVIEW [10:12.27]In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. [10:16.09]Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. [10:19.70]Questions 1 to 5 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview, [10:24.51]you will be given 10 seconds to answer each of the following 5 questions. [10:29.32]Now listen to the interview. [10:31.62]Interviewer(M): Mrs. Hobson, would you please describe some of the things you do
with [10:36.12]aggressive children in this special school? [10:38.43]Mrs. Hobson(W): Well, you must realize that when he comes here he is meeting other aggressive children, [10:43.89]and aggressive children all together usually gum each other up. [10:48.13]M: Umm. [10:50.21]W: And they find that aggressive here doesn't pay off because you can be [10:54.15]jolly sure there's one tougher and worse than he is. [10:57.42]M: Umm. [10:59.06]W: So I usually have ohm... Sometimes have organized fights. [11:03.65]M: Organized fights? You actually... [11:06.06]W: Yes. [11:06.73]M: You actually encourage the children to. [11:09.35]W: We have a ring and we have a bell. [11:11.56]M: A boxing ring? [11:12.65]W: Yes! They must conform, they must keep to the rules, and when they have either lost or won, [11:18.33]we discuss what it is to be the winner and what it is like to lose. [11:22.49]And we carry on with our discussion and go on to what it is like in life. [11:27.63]M: Umm. [11:29.06]W: We must win or lose and we must do each very gracefully. [11:32.77]M: Would you please describe some children you have had problems with? [11:37.04]W: I had one boy who cut off his dog's ears. [11:40.42]M: Cut off his dog's ears? Good lord! [11:43.49]W: Yes. And put a stone around his neck and drowned him. [11:46.77]M: The dog? [11:47.90]W: Yes. Then there was another boy that used to attack me. [11:51.61]M: Attack you? [11:53.44]W: Yes. Umm...with anything at hand. I hid scissors. Umm...he tried to cut my hair once. And... [12:02.09]M: When you weren't looking? [12:03.63]W: Yes. You have to be strong. And of course...er... [12:07.57]M: By strong you mean... [12:08.99]W: Physically strong and mentally. [12:10.41]M: So that you can shove them away? [12:13.14]W: Well, so that you can defend yourself. I always say to them I'm going to win. [12:18.54]And once I've established that, we're all right. [12:21.27]M: Mrs. Hobson, why do you think some children are aggressive? [12:25.54]W: If a child is one of six or seven children in a family, [12:29.69]it's pretty sure that he is naughty and aggressive because he is crying out for attention [12:35.38]and in this large family he's found that a jolly good way of getting attention is to shout, [12:40.96]be naughty. At least mummy turns round and says, "Be quiet, be a good boy, or you'll get this or that." [12:47.63]M: So some children are aggressive simply in order...
[12:50.80]W: To gain attention! Aggressiveness usually is that. [12:55.72]It's really the children crying out and saying, "Look at me, please." [12:59.55]M: Umm. [13:00.77]W: I'm not saying it's the answer in all circumstances but it usually is. [13:05.58]M: What are the advantages of your school, as compared with ordinary school? [13:10.29]W: The classes are smaller for one thing. [13:13.24]M: How small? [13:14.00]W: Er...we only have groups up to five or six. [13:17.27]M: And in a normal school? [13:19.46]W: Oh. that varies of course but it could be thirty to forty. [13:22.86]M: Umm. [13:24.38]W: Here he does have individual attention every day. [13:27.66]M: Do you think the work is important? [13:30.06]W: I do. Without our unit or something similar. [13:32.80]M: The unit is the school? [13:34.33]W: Yes, the whole unit. I think a lot of children would be left and then perhaps at the age of [13:40.25]sixteen we would have our juvenile delinquent. I'm not saying we're curing them all, [13:45.15]but I think at least with the unit available to these children, they have had a chance to make good. [13:50.95]M: Umm. [13:51.90]W: I'm not saying it always pays off, but they have had a chance. 本 文 来 自 : 恒 星 英 语 学 习 网 (www.Hxen.com) 详 细 出 处 参 考 ： http://www.hxen.com/englishlistening/tem8/manfen/2009-07-06/82723_2.html [14:47.15]Section C NEWS BROADCAST [14:51.41]In this section, you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. [14:54.47]Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. [14:57.97]Questions 6 to 7 are based on the following news. [15:02.13]At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer each of the two questions. [15:09.24]Now listen to the news. [15:11.77]Now that the U.S. space shuttle Discovery is back on Earth, future shuttle missions are [15:18.56]postponed until the space agency NASA solves the problem of launch debris endangering the orbiters. [15:25.56]Whenever missions resume, they will continue building the International Space Station, [15:31.13]which the United States operates with Russia and the support of Europe, Canada, and Japan. [15:37.04]But there is a legal obstacle that may keep the U.S. astronauts off the Space Station. [15:42.94]The issue dates back to 1996, when the two countries agreed that Russia would provide the United States [15:50.82]free crew and cargo transportation to the station until next April. [15:55.19]This provision proved crucial during the long ban on shuttle flights after the Columbia disaster in 2003,
[16:03.18]for the United States had no other way to get its astronauts and supplies to the station. [16:28.57]Question 8 is based on the following news. [16:33.60]At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the question. [16:40.37]Now listen to the news. [16:43.22]Malaysian President Abdullah Badawi says the Muslim world should do [16:48.47]more to improve the economic standing of all Muslims. [16:51.09]He told business leaders gathered in Hong Kong Monday [16:55.25]that the Islamic world must do all it can to end poverty among all Muslims. [16:59.85]Mr. Abdullah, who currently chairs the 57-nation Organization of Islamic Conference, [17:06.19]says the time has come for the OIC to emphasize the economic development of its members. [17:11.88]He says Muslim populations must not only strive for peace, but also for economic vitality. [17:18.00]Many of the OIC's members are developing countries in Africa and the Middle East. [17:23.69]Malaysia has recently been taking steps to promote Islamic banking and finance. [17:28.61]Next week, senior officials from the Islamic Development Bank, the funding agency of the OIC, [17:34.62]will meet in Kuala Lumpur to discuss and formulate economic programs [17:39.11]for the organization's poorer members. [17:51.86]Questions 9 and 10 are based on the following news. [17:57.00]At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer each of the two questions. [18:03.90]Now listen to the news.) [18:06.30]This is the 59th annual Tony awards ceremony broadcast nationwide from Radio City Music Hall. [18:14.84]Monty Python's Spamalot has been a sold-out hit since it opened on Broadway in March. [18:21.40]It won the Antoinette Perry Awards, the Tonys, for best musical, [18:26.21]and for director and featured actress in the musical category. [18:30.36]A new musical, The Light in the Piazza, won the largest number of awards, six. [18:36.81]Broadway's top dramatic honors went to the much-acclaimed play, Doubt, A Parable. [18:42.62]The story of a nun's suspicion of child abuse at a parochial school [18:47.21]won the Pulitzer Prize earlier this year after switching to Broadway [18:52.02]from a successful off-Broadway run. [18:54.54]Veteran actress Cherry Jones and director Doug Hughes also took home the top honors in the dramatic category. [19:02.08]Playwright Edward Albee, the author of Broadway classics, such as Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf, [19:09.08]A Delicate Balance and The Zoo Story, was presented with a special Lifetime Achievement Award. 本 文 来 自 : 恒 星 英 语 学 习 网 (www.Hxen.com) 详 细 出 处 参 考 ： http://www.hxen.com/englishlistening/tem8/manfen/2009-07-06/82723_3.html