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英语四级新题型模拟试题及答案


2007 年英语四级新题型模拟试题及答案(3) 大学英语 4 级考试 College English Model Test Three —Band Four—

Part ⅠWriting(30 minutes) Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty letter to your American friend al in China and minutes to write a

Lawrence, to introduce Spring Festiv

invite him to join you to spend this Spring Festival. 120 words fol

Suppose you are Yuan Chao. You should write at least lowing the suggestions given below in 1. 表达你对 Lawrence 的想念之情; 2. 介绍中国的春节; 3. 邀请 Lawrence 和你们一起过春节。 提示:在实考试卷中,该试题在答题卡 1 上。 September 23, 2005 Dear Lawrence, Yours, Yuan Chao Chinese:

A Letter to Lawrence

Part ⅡReading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)(15 minutes)

Directions:In this part,you will have 15 minutes to go over the passa ge quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7,mark

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Y (for YES)if the statement agrees with the information given in th e passage; N (for NO) the statement contradicts the information given in the if passage; NG (for NOT GIVEN)if the information is not given in the passage. For questions 8-10,complete the sentences with information given in the passage.

Computer Crime
A computer crime is generally defined as one that involves the use of computers and software for illegal purposes. This doesn't mean that all the crimes are new types of crime. On the contrary, many of these crimes, such as embezzlement of funds, the alteration of records, th eft, vandalism, sabotage, and terrorism, can be committed without a c omputer. But with a computer, these offenses can be carried out more quickly and with less chance that the person responsible for the crim e will be discovered. Computer crimes are on the rise and have been for the last twelve yea rs. Just how much these computer crimes cost the American public is i n dispute, but estimates range from ?$3 billion to ?$5 billion an nually. Even the FBI, which attempts to keep track of the growth or d ecline of all kinds of crimes, is unable to say precisely how large a loss is involved; however, it estimates that the average take from a company hit by computer crime is ?$600,000. A number of reasons ar e given for the increase in computer crime: (A) more computers in u se and, thus, more people who are familiar with basic computer operat
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ion; (B) more computers tied together in satellite and other data—t ransmission networks; and (C) the easy access of microcomputers to huge mainframe data bases.

The Criminal
Movies and newspaper stories might lead us to believe that most compu ter crimes are committed by teenage “hackers”—brilliant and basica lly good children who let their imagination and technical genius get them into trouble. But a realistic look at the crimes reveals that th e offender is likely to be an employee of the firm against which the crime has been committed, i.e., an “insider”.

Difficulty of Detection and Prevention
Given the kind of person who commits a computer crime and the environ ment in which the crime occurs, it is often difficult to detect who t he criminal is. First of all, the crime may be so complex that months or years go by before anyone discovers it. Second, once the crime has been revealed, it is not easy to find a cl ear trail of evidence that leads back to the guilty party. After all, looking for “weapons” or fingerprints does not occur as it might i n the investigation of more conventional crimes. Third, there are usually no witnesses to the computer crime, even tho ugh it may be taking place in a room filled with people. Who is to sa y if the person at the next terminal, calmly keying in data, is doing the company's work or committing a criminal act? Fourth, not enough people in management and law enforcement know enou gh about computer technology to prevent the crimes. Authorities have
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to be familiar with the computer's capabilities within a given situat ion to guard against its misuses. In some large cities, such as Los A ngeles, police departments have set up specially trained computer cri me units. But even when an offender is caught, the investigators, attorneys (律 师), judges, or juries may find the alleged crime too complicated an d perplexing to handle. More attorneys are specializing in computer l aw and studying the computer's potential for misuse. After a computer crime has been discovered, many companies do not rep ort it or prosecute (起诉) the person responsible. A company may no t announce the crime out of fear that the pubic will find out the wea knesses of its computer system and lose confidence in its organizatio n. Banks, credit card companies, and investment firms are especially sensitive about revealing their vulnerabilities (脆弱性) because th ey rely heavily on customer trust. To avoid public attention, cautious companies will often settle cases of computer tampering out of court. And if cases do go to trial and the offenders are convicted, they may be punished only by a fine or l ight sentence because the judge or jury isn't fully trained to unders tand the nature and seriousness of the crime. Not all companies are timid in apprehending computer criminals. For e xample, Connecticut General Life Insurance Company decided it had to get tough on violators. So when the company discovered that one of it s computer technicians had embezzled ?$200,000 by entering false be nefit claims, it presented it findings to the state's attorney and ai
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ded in the prosecution of the technician. The technician was found gu ilty and sentenced to prison, not just for the computer misuse, but a lso for grand theft and insurance fraud. Connecticut General now has a policy of reporting all incidents of theft or fraud, no matter how small. 提示:在实考试卷中,8-10 题在答题卡 1 上。 1. The FBI knows exactly how large a loss is involved in computer cri mes. 2. It has become easy for microcomputer owners to use huge mainframe data bases. 3. It is implied in the Paragraph 3 that most computer criminals are the employees of the concerned companies. 4. Many companies don ? t report computer crimes because law procedur es against computer crimes usually cost a lot of money. 5. When computer crime takes place in a room filled with people, ther e are usually many witnesses to the crime. 6. The passage is mainly about the increase of computer crimes in Ame rica and the difficulties in combating computer crimes. 7. Computer crimes are on the rise because more cheap microcomputers are available. 8. According to the passage, computer crimes has been on the rise for the last years. 9. Connecticut General Life Insurance company is cited as of companie s that took serious measures to fight against computer crimes.

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10. Banks, credit card companies, and investment firms are especially sensitive about revealing their vulnerabilities because they place t oo much reliance on . Part Ⅲ Listening Comprehension(35 minutes) Section A Directions:In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations.At the end of each conversation,one or more quest ions will be asked about what was said.Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once.After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B),C) and D),and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the co rresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the c entre. 11. A) She won't let her friend borrow the car. B) She will shop for a car. C) She has a good car. D) She will lend her car to her friend. 12. A) She hasn't heard from the professor in a week. B) The class has extra time to complete the assignment. C) She only just found out about the economics paper. D) She won't see the professor until next week. 13. A) Her backhand is almost perfect. B) The time the man spent practicing has helped him. C) The man's mother wanted him to practice. D) Her mother is a good tennis coach.
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14. A) Board the train. B) Send a fax. C) Change his departure time. D) Have breakfast. 15. A) He turned a corner so fast. B) He ran a red light. C) He went through a stop sign. D) He was speeding. 16. A) Each person will be allowed to buy only one ticket. B) The tickets will sell out quickly. C) The rock concert will probably be rescheduled. D) There will be extra tickets. 17. A) They didn't get wet. B) They're late for the concert. C) They prefer to dress casually. D) They're really looking forward to the concert. 18. A) She was working on a train schedule. B) She didn't get home until after midnight. C) She was busy with her guests all evening. D) She left too late to catch the train. Question 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard. 19. A) How different kinds of pepper are produced. B) Why white pepper is superior to black pepper. C) How the pepper plant is grown. D) How various peppers are used in cooking.
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20. A) He read about it in a cookbook. B) He grows his own herbs and spices. C) He heard about it from a friend. D) He studied it in cooking school. 21. A) It's preserved in liquid. B) The skin is removed. C) It's dried in the sun. D) It's freeze—dried. 22. A) It's more pure than other types of pepper. B) It helps maintain the color of certain dishes. C) It has a fruity flavor. D) It's easier to grow. Question 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard. 23. A) A story in prose. B) A poem that rhymes. C) A translation of a short literary work. D) A journal about the process of writing. 24. A) The class has been assigned to read it. B) He was able to read it in French. C) He isn't sure it's available in English. D) He thinks it's an example of what the professor wants. 25. A) It's pronounced differently in French than it is in English. B) To write without using it is difficult both in English and in French.

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C) Every word in the French author's book contained it. D) It's commonly used in English to make poetry rhyme.转

Section B Directions:In this section,you will hear 3 short passages.At the end of each passage,you will hear some questions.Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once.After you hear a question,you mus t choose the best answer from the four choices marked A),B),C) and D) .Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet 2 with a sing le line through the centre.

Passage One Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard. 26. A) Automobile safety. B) Increasing fuel efficiency. C) California's pollution laws. D) Electric—powered cars. 27. A) They are cheaper. B) They do not pollute as much. C) They are simpler to drive. D) They are faster. 28. A) It is not comfortable. B) It is difficult to steer. C) It cannot go long distance without recharging. D) Its engine easily overheats.
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Passage Two Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard. 29. A) Its publication was banned by the British government. B) It was the first weekly newspaper. C) It caused a prison revolt. D) It was the first magazine ever published. 30. A) He wrote articles critical of the Church of England. B) He refused to stop publishing The Review. C) He refused to pay publishing taxes. D) He refused to join the Church of England. 31. A) It was not really a magazine. B) It featured a variety of articles and stories. C) It was praised by readers of poetry. D) It was unpopular with political analysis.

Passage Three Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard. 32. A) Miss Straus. B) Mabel Bird. C) Isidor Straus. D) Mabel Bird's servant. 33. A) To get into the lifeboat. B) To stay with her husband.

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C) To be close to her husband. D) To stand arm in arm on the deck with her husband. 34. A) Her best friend. B) Her heart's true companion. C) Always a comfort to her soul. D) All of the above. 35. A) She wanted to put the children first into the lifeboat. B) She could not bear to leave her husband. C) She helped her servant to get into the boat. D) She was too old to put her foot on the edge of the boat.

Section C Directions:In this section,you will hear a passage three times.When t he passage is read for the first time,you should listen carefully for its general idea.When the passage is read for the second time,you ar e required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exac t words you have just heard.For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information.For these blanks,you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the mai n points in you own words.Finally, when the passage is read for the t hird time,you should check what you have written. 提示:在实考试卷中,该试题在答题卡 2 上。 One of the best ways to celebrate Mother's Day is to give your mom th e day off. Let her take it easy and (36)while the rest of the famil y does the work.
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My families begin Mother's Day with (37) in bed. Usually dad and th e kids will let mom sleep late as they go into the (38)and prepare her(39)meal. A Mother's Day breakfast can (40)of anything your mo m likes. After the food is cooked (41)everything nicely on a (42). Don't f orget the (43)with a single flower. Wite spring here, the children can pick a tulip(郁金香)or daffodil(黄水仙花) from the garden out side. When everything is ready (44)Cards and small presents from th e children can be placed on the tray before it is presented to mom in bed. Many families make a special Mother's Day dinner or (45). It is a g ood day to let your mom have a good rest and let her see what a wonde rful family she has. (46).These telegrams can be sent from any post office in this count ry. Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension(Reading in Depth)(25 minutes) Section A Directions:In this section,there is a passage with ten blanks.You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices gi ven in a word bank following the passage.Read the passage through car efully before making your choices.Each choice in the bank is identifi ed by a letter.Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once. Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
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What is it about Americans and food? We love to eat, but we feel

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about it afterward. We say we want only the best, but we strangely en joy junk food. We're 48 with health and weight loss but face an unpre cedented epidemic of obesity(肥胖). Perhaps the 49 to this ambivale nce (矛盾情结) lies in our history. The first Europeans came to this continent searching for new spices but went in vain. The first cash c rop(经济作物) wasn't eaten but smoked. Then there was Prohibition, intended to prohibit drinking but actually encouraging more 50 ways o f doing it. The immigrant experience, too, has been one of inharmony. Do as Roman s do means eating what “real Americans” eat, but our nation's food has come to be 51 by imports—pizza, say, or hot dogs. And some of th e country's most treasured cooking comes from people who arrived here in shackles. Perhaps it should come as no surprise then that food has been a mediu m for the nation's defining struggles, whether at the Boston Tea Part y or the sit ? ins at southern lunch counters. It is integral to our concepts of health and even morality whether one refrains from alcoho l for religious reasons or evades meat for political 52 . But strong opinions have not brought 53 . Americans are ambivalent ab out what they put in their mouths. We have become 54 of our foods, es pecially as we learn more about what they contain. The 55 in food is still prosperous in the American consciousness. It' s no coincidence, then, that the first Thanksgiving holds the America n imagination in such bondage(束缚). It's what we eat—and how we 5
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6 it with friends, family, and strangers—that help define America as a community today. A. answerB. resultC. shareD. guiltyE. constant F. definedG. vanishH. adaptedI. creativeJ. belief K. suspiciousL. certaintyM. obsessedN. identifyO. Ideals

Section B Directions:There are 2 passages in this section.Each passage is follo wed by some questions or unfinished statements.For each of them there are four choices marked A),B),C) and D) .You should decide on th e best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 wit h a single line through the centre.

Passage One Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage. Resources can be said to be scarce in both an absolute and relative s ense: the surface of the Earth is finite, imposing absolute scarcity; but the scarcity that concerns economists is the relative scarcity o f resources in different uses. Materials used for one purpose cannot at the same time be used for other purposes; if the quantity of an in put is limited, the increased use of it in one manufacturing process must cause it to become less available for other uses. The cost of a product in terms of money may not measure its true cost to society. The true cost of, say, the construction of a supersonic jet is the value of the schools and refrigerators that will never be
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built as a result. Every act of production uses up some of society's available resources; it means the foregoing of an opportunity to prod uce something else. In deciding how to use resources most effectively to satisfy the wants of the community, this opportunity cost must ul timately be taken into account. In a market economy the price of a good and the quantity supplied dep end on the cost of making it, and that cost, ultimately, is the cost of not making other goods. The market mechanism enforces this relatio nship. The cost of, say, a pair of shoes is the price of the leather, the labor, the fuel, and other elements used up in producing them. B ut the price of these inputs, in turn, depends on what they can produ ce elsewhere—if the leather can be used to produce handbags that are valued highly by consumers, the prices of leather will be bid up cor respondingly. 57. What does this passage mainly discuss? A) The scarcity of manufactured goods. B) The value of scarce materials. C) The manufacturing of scarce goods. D) The cost of producing shoes. 58. According to the passage, what are the opportunity costs of an it em? A) The amount of time and money spent in producing it. B) The opportunities a person has to buy it. C) The value of what could have been produced instead. D) The value of the resources used in its production.
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59. According to the passage, what is the relationship between produc tion and resources? A) Available resources stimulate production. B) Resources are totally independent of production. C) Production increases as resources increase. D) Production lessens the amount of available resources. 60. What determines the price of a good in a market economy? A) The cost of all elements in production. B) The cost of not making other goods. C) The efficiency of the manufacturing process. D) The quantity of materials supplied. 61. Which of the following examples BEST reflects a cost to society a s defined in the passage? A) A family buying a dog. B) Eating in a restaurant instead of at home. C) Using land for a house instead of a park. D) Staying at home instead of going to school.

Passage Two Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage. According to sociologists, there are several different ways in which a person may become recognized as the leader of a social group. In th e family, traditional cultural patterns confer leadership on one or b oth of the parents. In other cases, such as friendship groups, one or more persons may gradually emerge as leaders, although there is no f
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ormal process of selection. In larger groups, leaders are usually cho sen formally through election or recruitment. Although leaders are often thought to be people with unusual personal ability, decades of research have failed to produce consistent evide nce that there is any category of “natural leaders”. It seems that there is no set of personal qualities that all leaders have in common; rather, virtually any person may be recognized as a leader if the pe rson has qualities that meet the needs of that particular group. Research suggests that there are typically two different leadership r oles that are held by different individuals. Instrumental leadership is leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks by a social gro up. Group members look to instrumental leaders to “get things done”. Expressive leadership, on the other hand, is leadership that emphasi zes the collective well ? beings of a social group ? s members. Expre ssive leaders are less concerned with the overall goals of the group than with providing emotional support to group members and attempting to minimize tension and conflict among them. Instrumental leaders are likely to have a rather secondary relationsh ip to other group members. They give others and may discipline group members who inhibit(阻碍) attainment of the group ? s goals. Expres sive leaders cultivate a more personal or primary relationship to oth ers in the group. They offer sympathy when someone experiences diffic ulties and try to resolve issues that threaten to divide the group. A s the difference in these two roles suggest, expressive leaders gener ally receive more personal affection from group members; instrumental
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leaders, if they are successful in promoting group goals, may enjoy a more distant respect. 62. What does the passage mainly discuss? A) The problems faced by leaders. B) How leadership differs in small and large groups. C) How social groups determine who will lead them. D) The role of leaders in social groups. 63. The passage mentions all of the following ways by which people ca n become leaders EXCEPT . A) recruitment B) formal election process C) specific leadership training D) traditional cultural patterns 64. Which of the following statements about leadership can be inferre d from paragraph 2? A) person who is an effective leader of a particular group may not b e an effective leader in another group. B) Few people succeed in sharing a leadership role with another pers on. C) A person can best learn how to be an effective leader by studying research on leadership. D) Most people desire to be leaders but can produce little evidence of their qualifications. 65. In mentioning “natural leaders” in line 7, the author is making the point that .
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A) few people qualify as “natural leaders” B) there is no proof that “natural leaders” exist C) “natural leaders” are easily accepted by the members of a group D) “natural leaders” share a similar set of characteristics 66. The passage indicates that instrumental leaders generally focus o n . A) ensuring harmonious relationships B) sharing responsibility with group members C) identifying new leaders D) achieving a goal Part Ⅴ Error Correction Direction:This part consists of a short passage. In this passage, the re are altogether 10 mistakes, one in each numbered line. You may hav e to change a word, add a word or delete a word. Mark out the mistake s and put the corrections in the blanks provided. If you change a wor d, cross it out and write the correct word in thecorresponding blank. If you add a word, put an insertion mark (∧) in the right place a nd write the missing word in the blank. If you delete a word, cross i t out and put a slash (/) in the blank. When we speak of a human need, we mean something which is unnecessary to life, something we can live with. 67 Food is a human need. We will starve to death if there 68 were no food on earth; but even if we have plenty of food, but of the wrong kind, our bodies will have problem from lack of the right food. This is known for malnutrition (营 69 养不良) .
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In countries where are not developed, man's food 70 needs are the same like in the most advanced societies. We 71 all need food and could live a good life on very few types of food. People in very developed countries eat only the kinds 72 of food which can be grown near their homes, whereas people in developed countries eat foods which are often grown many thousands of miles away form their homes. People in undeveloped countries are happy with less different kinds of foods than people in very developed ones are, so we can say that despite the needs of the two kinds 73 of people are the same, their wants are different. People in very developed countries eat many different types of meat—they could live by only one, but they would be very 74 unhappy because every time what they ate was the same. Even such special foods like chicken would be less fun to 75 eat if you had them every day. But we can't just live on meat—we need other kinds of food like bread, rice, and vegetables which are no more necessary to our bodies. 76

Part Ⅵ Translation (5 minutes) Direction:Complete the sentences on Answer Sheet 2 by translating in to English the Chinese given in brackets. 提示:在实考试卷中,该试题在答题卡 2 上。 77. Jinling Hotel, where I stayed during my first visit to Nanjing, (座落在)on Hanzhong Road.
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78. I am sure we can solve the problem if we all (集思广益). 79. Mary constantly (挑剔) her husband, which annoys him. 80. It is no good waiting for the bus, (我们不妨走回家吧). 81. Prices are going up rapidly. Petrol now (现在汽油的价格是几年前的 两倍). 答案与解析 Part ⅠWriting Dear Lawrence, It has been five years since we met each other lies! How are things with you? lways on my mind last time. How time f

The happy time we spent together is a

and I really hope to meet you again. As you know, S the most favorable holiday for us

pring Festival, Lunar New Year, is Chinese. With its colorful and most in every part

rich traditions, it is celebrated al a

of China. Everyone is indulged in the dominant

tmosphere of joyous family reunion and with the fresh ook people greet the New Year. The celebrations vary from place to place, but tions that have never differed w Year's Eve dinner

and vigorous l

there are three tradi

throughout the country. First, the Ne

is a symbol of family reunion, with all family m of deli

embers sitting around the steaming table, tasting a variety cious food and wishing each other health, ond, people, during the

success and happiness. Sec

holidays, will visit each other to express t marvelo

heir best regards and wishes. And finally, we can enjoy the us lion and dragon dances symbolizing osperity.
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happiness, good fortune and pr

The day is drawing nearer, my families and I join us for this year's

sincerely invite you to

Spring Festival. If you'd like to, we can m

ake further arrangements. Looking forward to your reply! Yours, Yuan Chao

Part ⅡReading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) 1. N.该句句意为:美国联邦调查局确切知道计算机犯罪造成了多大损失。 本题解 题依据为本文第二段 “Even the FBI,which attempts?is involved”,该句 大意为:尽管 FBI 致力于对各种犯罪的上升和下降有清晰认识,但并不能精确说 明损失多大,所以与原文之意不合。 2. Y. 该句句意为:计算机拥有者很容易利用大量计算机数据库,本题解题依据 为第二段最后一段话“?the easy access of microcomputers to huge mainf rame data bases.”与原文之义吻合。 3. Y. 该句句意为: 本文第三段暗示大多数利用计算机犯罪者是相关公司雇员。 本题解题依据为文章第三段最后一句话, 其大意为: 现实情况表明很可能是该公 司雇员内部人?,与原文所述之义吻合。 4. N. 该句句意为: 许多公司不举报计算机犯罪是因为法律诉讼通常花费很多 钱。 解题依据为本文第九段第一和第二句话,他们不举报是害怕公众发现其计算 机系统的弱点而对其丧失信心。据此可确定与原文所述不符。 5. N. 该句句意为: 当计算机犯罪在满是人的房间里发生时, 通常有很多证人指 证犯罪。本题解题依据为本文第六段第一句话,该句大意为:即使计算机犯罪发 生在满是人的房间里,通常也无证人。据此可知该句所述之义与原文不符。 6. Y. 该句句意为:本篇文章主要是关于计算机犯罪的增长及与之作斗争的困难 性,通览全文,尤其根据小标题的提示,我们不难看出文章主要论述了计算机犯
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罪与日俱增及难于发觉和阻止诸方面的原因,即文章的中心思想,与原文所述主 旨吻合。 7. NG.该句句意为:计算机犯罪上升是因为有更多便宜的计算机。本文第二段用 a,b,c 列出了计算机犯罪增加的三大原因,其中并未提及计算机便宜这一点。 8. twelve 答案依据为第二段第一句话。 9. an example “?be cited as an example”,表示“引用?来作为一个例证” 答案依据为文章最后一段第二句话。但原文没有直接照抄的语言,只能根据理解 完成此空。 10. customer trust 答案依据为本文第九段最后一句话。 Part Ⅲ Listening Comprehension Section A 11. A12. B13. B14. B15. B 16. B17. D18. C19. D20. D 21. C22. A23. B24. D25. B Section B 26. D27. B28. C29. D30. A 31.B32. B33. A34. D35. B Section C 36~46 题答案见听力文字稿

Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) Section A 47. Dfeel 是一个系动词,可以判断此处应填入一个形容词,通过上下文意思, 以及后面介词 about, 可以确定选项为 D 项 guilty, 短语 feel guilty about s th. “对?感到有愧”。全句的意思为“我们很爱吃,但是往往在吃完之后又有 负罪感”。

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48. Mbe obsessed with 为固定搭配,原意为“被?附上/缠住/迷住心窍”,放 在本句表示“十分重视”。全句的意思为“我们很关心健康和减肥,但肥胖却又 空前地在蔓延”。 49. A 本句缺一个名词作主语,并且根据和介词 to 的搭配,可以推断出正确选 项 answer. 50. I 本句根据 more 和 ways 可以判断出需要填入一个形容词构成比较级, 根据 上下文,表示“旨在禁止酗酒的禁酒令,却激发了更多新奇的方法来酗酒”,可 以确定 I 为正确选项。 51. F 本题较难。根据 be 和 by 确定应填入一个过去分词。再根据上下文,上 文表示“应该吃典型的美国人吃的食物”,下文通过 but 转折,表示实际上“美 国的食物已经被诸如比萨和热狗这样的舶来品所诠释了” ,因此可以确定 F 为正 确选项。 53. L 由于横线后面没有宾语,可以确定不是形成 bring 的短语,这样本句所缺 的为一名词,做 bring 的宾语。根据下文解释,“美国人对他们所吃的食物的态 度是矛盾的”,可以推出本句意义为“坚定的观点也不是确定不变的”。因此可 以确定 L 为正确选项。 54. K 系动词 become 后应填入一个形容词, 和后面介词 of 形成短语 be/become suspicious of “对?感到怀疑”。 55. J 本句缺一个名词作主语,并且根据和介词 in 的搭配,可以推断出正确选 项 belief,“(have)belief in sth.” 相信?。 56. C 本句是一般现在时,缺一个动词,且和 with 搭配,确定选项 share,“sh are sth with sb, 与某人分享某事”。

Section B

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57. B 主旨题。本文三段内容均围绕短缺原料的价值进行说明。文章第一段说明 了什么叫原料相对短缺, 第二段说明了什么叫机会成本,第三段说明了原料的价 格是由什么决定的。 58. C 细节归纳题。第二段中“Every act of production uses up some of so ciety ? s available resources; it means the foregoing of an opportuni ty to produce something else.”说明机会成本是用可生产的其他商品来衡量 的,选项 C 正好符合该意思。 59. D 细节归纳题。第一段“Materials used for one purpose cannot at the same time be used for other purposes; if the quantity of an input is limited, the increased use of it in one manufacturing process must c ause it to become less available for other uses.” 说明社会总资源是有限 的,用掉其中一些就会使总量减少并限制其他商品的生产。 60. A 细节归纳题。文章第三段“In a market economy the price of a good and the quantity supplied depends on the cost of making it” (市场经济 条件下,商品的价格和产量取决于其成本),然后又说 “The cost of, say, a pair of shoes is the price of the leather, the labor, the fuel, and o ther elements used up in producing them.” 以鞋子为例说明商品价格是由生 产要求决定的。 61. C 推断题。文主要阐述了经济学里面的一个重要概念——“机会成本”,是 讲商品生产和社会资源之间的关系。A、B、D 均未涉及到生产领域,只有 C 符合 本文的主旨。 62. D 主旨题。本篇主要讨论不同的领导者(如 instrumental leaders 以及 ex pressive leaders)在不同的社会群体中所充当的角色和发挥的功能。所以 D 为正确答案。A、B、C 选项都不能正确概括本文主旨。

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63. C 细节理解题。A 选项的招募(recruitment)和 B 选项选举程序(electio n process)都在第一段中作为大群体的领导者产生的方式被明确提到。D 选项 也在第一段中作为家庭领导者的产生的方式被明确提到。 只有 C 选项没有作为产 生领导者的一种方式在本文中被提及。 64. A 推论题。A 选项意思是:某一特定群体的有效领导者,不一定就可以成为另 一群体的有效领导者。 这正好与第二段的意思相吻合,即领导者没有一个固定的 特点,只是符合了一个特定群体需要的人就有可能成为该群体的领导者(It se ems?virtually any person may be recognized as a leader if the person has qualities that meet the needs of that particular group)。B 选项 和 C 选项的意思与本文无关。D 选项意为:许多人想成为领导者,但却很少能拿 出证据来证明他们具有这样的资格。显然是对文章意思的曲解。 65. B 细节理解题。第二段中“?decades of research have failed to produ ce consistent evidence that there is any category of 'natural leaders '”意思是说数十年来的研究并不能找出可靠证据来证明那些人可以成为“天生 领导者”,与 B 项意思一致。 66. D 细节理解题。第三、四段主要讲了两种类型的领导者的区别。其中 instr umental leader 侧重于群体目标的实现,而 expressive leader 相对于前者并 不侧重于群体目标的实现, 而是注重为群体成员提供情感支持,并尽力减少内部 纷争。(Expressive leaders are less concerned with the overall goals of the group than with providing emotional support to group members a nd attempting to minimize tension and conflict among them.) Part Ⅴ Error Correction 67. 本题考查上下文语义关系,unnecessary 改为 necessary .本句句意为:我 们所谈及的人的需要,是指我们生活中必不可少的东西。据此,应用肯定意义的 necessary.
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68. 本题考查虚拟语气用法, will 改为 would.根据英语语法,与一般现在事实 相反的虚拟语气,条件句用一般过去时,主句用 would 加动词原形。 69. 本题考查搭配关系, for 改为 as.“be known as,被认为是?”, “be k nown for,因?而众所周知”。根据题意,应是 be known as,即“这被称为营 养不良”。 70. 本题考查定语从句的关系词,where 改为 which/that.此处引导定语从句的 关系词在定语从句里必须充当主语,而 where 在定语从句里作地点状语,没有 作主语的功能,因此,where 改为 which 或 that. 71. 本题考查固定搭配,like 改为 as.“the same as?,与?同样的”,为固 定搭配。 72. 本题考查上下文语义关系, developed 改为 undeveloped.考生做此题时要有 全局意识。本句与下句是发达国家和不发达国家的两个对比。本句中 whereas 引出转折,前部分指“欠发达国家的人们只食用在其家园附近种植的食物”,而 后部分指“发达国家的人们吃的是距其家好几千英里之外生长的食物”。之所以 改成 undeveloped 而不是 underdeveloped 是因为下句中也出现了 undeveloped, 作为提示。 73. 本题考查介词用法,despite 改为 although/though.despite 是介词,不能 引导句子,如要引导,必须改成 “despite the fact that?, ”。比较简洁的 方法是把 despite 改为 although 或 though. 74. 本题考查习惯用法,by 改为 on.“live on (sth.), 继续生活, 以?为主 食, 靠?生活”。“live by (doing sth.),以?为生”。本句意思为:他们 可以只吃一种肉。并且下文再次出现 live on 作为提示。 75. 本题考查固定搭配,like 改为 as.such as 为固定搭配。 76. 本题考查上下文语义关系, more 改为 less no more necessary,表示否定, “ ” 不重要多少“; ”no less necessary“是双重否定表示肯定,”同样必要“。
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Part Ⅵ Translation 77. is situated 78. put our heads together 79. finds fault with 80. we may/might as well walk home 81. petrol now is twice as expensive as it was a few years ago.

2005 年 12 月雅思口语最新内容及备考指导 1 Part1 Name and preparation 一级重要

1: What is your name?

2: Do you have a job or are you a student?

3: Which subjects did you study when you were in school?

4: What will you do in the future? (What will you do after you

graduate? What kind of job you want to get?)

5: Why do you want to go abroad?

6: Which specialty you will choose in the future? Why?

7: What is your daily routine? About studying English 二级重要
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1: please give some ideas about how to study English?

2: What do you think about English?

3: What do you think of English and other languages?

4: How to learn English well? (How to improve your English?)

5: When did you begin to study English?

6: What is the key to studying English?

7: Are there some difficulties when studying English?

8: Why do you not study other languages? Family 一级重要

1. Describe your father? Describe his personality and character?

2. Describe your mother? Describe her personality?

3. Who do you like the most your father or your mother? Why?

4. What family activities are popular in your city?

5. Are you satisfied with your family life? Would you ever want it to be changed?

6. Is family education important?

7. Parents are the best teachers do you agree or disagree? Why?

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8. What is the best way to raise a child?

9. What kinds of activities are common among elderly people in your cit y?

10. When parents get old most of them live in Bed houses(养老院,也可 能用 rest house 表达) or Nursing homes as they have problems living together with their children. Do you think that it is reasonable? Is it common in your country?

11. Should children live independently after they become adults?

12. What kind of social welfare is available for elderly citizens in your ci ty/country?

13. Should parents punish children physically?

14. What is the best way to take care of elderly people?

15. What is your opinion on the concept of divorce? Does it affect the c hildren ? Hobbies 二级重要

1. What are your hobbies?

2. What do you prefer to do in the evening?

3. What do you hate to do in the evening?

4. Do you like to listen to music? What type and why?
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5. Do you play any musical instrument? If no would you like to learn?

6. Have you ever tried any dangerous sports such as bungee jumping, surf ing, climbing, sky diving etc? If not would you like to try?

7. Where do you normally hang out with your friends? What is so special about this place?

8. What sort of person do you really like to make friends with?

9. What is the difference between your hobbies now and those when you were a kid?

10. Do you like to play computer games? Which one is your favourite? Why?

11. What makes you laugh? Why? Hometown 一级重要

1. Do you like your hometown? Why?

2. What is famous about your hometown?

3. What do people do for fun in your hometown?

4. What do people like to do in the evening?

5. What is your opinion on the living standard of your hometown?

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6. What are the biggest changes in your hometown? Which have occurred in the past decade?

7. Are you satisfied with the development of your hometown? Why?

8. Are there any museums in your hometown? Which one is your favourit e★Why?

9. Describe something that you saw in this museum?

10. What are the best places to enjoy and visit in your hometown?

11. How are traffic conditions in your hometown?

12. What are the people like in your hometown?

13. Are there any parks or garden of interest in your hometown? Which ones are your favourite? Why?

14. What is the main industry in your hometown?

15. Describe the environmental problem of your hometown?

16. What is the most popular sport in your hometown? Why?

17. How is the weather in your hometown? What do people prefer to do in certain seasons?

18. Which city would you prefer to go and live?

19. Which country you would like to go to and why?

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20. Would you prefer to live in a city or a village? Why? Sport: 二级重要

1: Do you like sports?<

2: Which kind of sports do you like? Why?

3: What kind of people like sports? Which dislike?

4: Do Chinese like sports?

5: Which kind of sports do people in your hometown like?

6: Do you think sports have some benefits to young people? What kind?

7: Did you do some sports in school?

8: Should the government limit dangerous sports, such as Bungee Jumping (蹦 极)? Photograph 二级重要

1: Do you like to take photographs?

2: Do Chinese people like to take photographs?

3: What kind of photos you like to take?

4: How do you arrange your photos?

5: Are there any photos on walls of your home?

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6: Do Chinese like photos?

7: Do you have some photos you took in the past?

8: What kind of photos do you like?

9: What kind of photos do Chinese like?

10: Is taking photos popular in china? Animals or pets 一级重要

1: What is your favourite animal?

2: Why do you like this animal?

3: Do you like keeping a pet? Why?

4: How should we protect wild animals?

5: Is it our responsibility to provide animals with better living and surviva l conditions?

6: Being a vet is a good job. Do you agree or disagree? Why?

7: What pets are popular in your country?

8: Is cloning animals reasonable or not?

9: Using animals for experiments is common do you have any suggestion on this procedure?

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10: Are animals worth protecting?

11: Are there any endangered species of animals in your country? How to canthey be saved them? Why should we save them? Job 二级重要

1:What is your job?

2:What would be your ideal job

3:What do you do ?

4:Why do you like or dislike this job?

5:Is your job promising or not? Why?

6:What jobs are the most popular in your country?

7:What is most important when it comes to a good job: money (salary), colleagues, boss or the working environment?

8:Are there any jobs you would not do?

9:Are there any jobs that only men or women should do?

10:How do people get paid in your country: weekly, monthly or daily? Are you satisfied with this schedule? Why?

11:Is working in a bank dangerous or not? Why?

12:Which job is the most respectful job in your country? Why?
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13:Did you ever have a part-time job? Transport: 一级重要

1: Which kind of transport do you like? Why? Tell me about its advantag e and disadvantage? 2: Which kind of transport you go by when traveling? Describe it’s advan tages and disadvantages?

3: Tell me something about transportation in the future?

1:Tell me about how to keep your figure?

2:What differences are there in keeping figure between men and women?

3:What is the right way to keep fit?

4:Are there any exercise facilities in your community? Birthday 一级重要

How to spend your birthday ?

Is birthday important in China? Wedding 二级重要

1:How is a Chinese wedding arranged?

2:What is the procedure for a Chinese wedding?

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3:What kinds of activities take place in a Chinese wedding?

4:What are the differences between Chinese and foreign weddings?

5:What are the differences between traditional and modern Chinese weddi ngs?

6: What sort of gifts can be given to the couple on their wedding day in China?

7:What gifts should we not give to the couple on the wedding day?

8:What kind of clothes should one wear for a Chinese wedding?

9:Where does the couple live after getting married? Independently or wit h the parents? Do you agree or disagree? Discuss.

10:Is the divorce rate very high in your country? How is it controlled?

11:What effects can divorce have to a child?

12:Should parents quarrel in front of the children?

13:What do you think of polygamy? Is it allowed in your country?

14:Should a couple be forced to do a full medical check-up before gettin g married? Why?

Part2&Part3

1.

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Describe an ideal apartment/ house: You must say: 一级重要

Where would you like to have your ideal apartment/house?

What kind of surroundings would you prefer around your apartment?

How about its interior decoration? And explain why it suits you or would suit you?

Extra Questions: ★What is the difference between modern buildings and old buildings? ★Describe the building most Chinese live in? ★What kind of house would be regarded ideal by most people? ★Why do most people prefer to live in big houses? ★Why maintain old buildings? ★Describe the differences between living in the city and living in village? ★Describe a city in which you would like to live? Why? ★Which country would you prefer to live in? Why? ★ Should children live with their parents when they grow up or should li ve independently?

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★Would you like to change your present home? Why?

2. Describe your favourite room: 一级重要

You must say:

Which is it?

Why you like it?

Describe the inside of the room?

Extra questions ★What kind of room would be ideal for you? ★How often do you tidy your room? ★What are the differences between the rooms in city homes and village

homes ? ★What is the difference between your bedroom and other rooms in your house? ★Do you know your neighbours? What sort of people are they? ★What are the advantages and disadvantages of living with parents? ★What sort of living environment is the best for children?

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3.

A Toy:

You must say:

What is this toy?

Describe how it looks?

Where did you buy it or who gave it to you? Why?

Why do you like it?

Extra questions:

1. What is your opinion on violent toys?

2. What are the differences between the toys girls like and the toys boys like?

3. What are the differences between old toys and new toys?

4. Are toys important for children? Why?

5. Why it is always boys who prefer violent toys?

6. Who should choose toys for children? Parents or the kids themselves.

7. Why do you think that parents spend a lot of money on toys for their children?

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2005 年 12 月雅思口语最新内容及备考指导 2 4. product 一级重要

Describe a product that is made or grown in your country

You must say:

What are its functions?

Who buys it?

Where can we buy it?

Why is it important?

Extra questions:

What type of advertisement is most popular?

What kind of business is most popular in your hometown?

Do you think some advertisement methods can be harmful?

Is local business important?

How do you think the employment of your city will change in the future? 5. A quiet place( park or garden) 一级重要

Describe a quite where you often go

Where?
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When?

Why?

Extra questions:

What impacts noises have?

How to reduce the harm of noises?

Do you like to live alone? Why? 6. Your favourite book or magazine+ (newspaper): 一级重要

You must say:

What is the name of this book or magazine?

Why do you like to read this book or magazine?

What did you learn from it?

Extra questions: ★How does the Internet effect books and their popularity? ★At what age should children start reading books? Why? ★What is the best method to enjoy reading a book? ★What is the difference between the books that people read in different

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age groups? What sorts of books do elderly people prefer to read in your opinion? ★Who is the most famous writer in your country? Why is he famous? ★Are there any foreign writers that are famous in your country? ★Describe what kind of books children should and shouldn’t read? 7. Relax 一级重要

Describe a way you like to relax.

You must say:

Why do you choose this method to relax yourself

(where, when, with whom, how often)

Extra questions:

Is life more stressful now?

How can we reduce stress ?

Do you feel very stressed ?

The differences between the way men and women relax?

How do people face their stressful lives? 8. Describe your favourite TV programme: 二级重要

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You must say

What is the name of your favourite TV programme?

Why do you like to watch this TV programme?

What is this programme about?

Extra Questions: ★What are the differences between the TV programmes of now and 20 y ears ago? ★Is there too much violence on TV in country? How should it be contro lled ? ★How is Internet affecting the TV? ★Are there any programmes that you hate to watch? Why? ★ What TV sets you prefer, the old ones or the new flat screen ones?W hy? ★Who is your favourite TV star? ★What is your opinion on advertisement on TV? Is it necessary? Why? ★Should children watch TV? Why? ★How many hours a week do you watch the TV? Are you a TV addict? ★What are the advantages and disadvantages of watching TV?
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9. Describe your favourite movie: 一级重要

You must say:

What is the name of this film?

Why do you like this film?

What is the story of this film?

With whom did you watch this film? 10. a story 二级重要

You must say:

What is the story?

Why do you like it?

What are the differences that you find in local and foreign stories?

Extra questions with answers, vocabulary and sample answer:

? Are there any differences between the stories that told to children in tha t past and nowadays? ★Who was your favourite superhero in your childhood? ★What is your opinion on superstitious people?

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★Children always like to copy their favourite superhero but sometimes th ey hurt themselves while they copy their heroes. In your opinion what kind of precautions should be taken? 11. Describe a gift: 一级重要

You must say:

What the gift is?

Who gave it to you?

When you got it

Why you got this gift

Extra Questions: ★What kinds of gifts are normally given to people in your country? ★ What kind of gifts should not be given to people in your country? W hy? ★Can money be given as a gift to people in your country? ★Are there any differences between the gifts given to people in the past and now? ★What are the differences between the gifts given to girls and boys? ★On what occasions do you normally give gifts to others?

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★What sort of gifts should we choose to give to children? Why? ★What is the most important thing one should pay attention to while buy ing a gift? Price or quality? ★Do you think wrapping a gift is necessary or it is just a custom that w e follow? 12. Describe a Shop. 一级重要

You must say:

What this shop is ?

Where is it? What’s special about this shop?

How are the price and quality of good sold in this shop?

Extra Questions: ★What are the main differences between bargain shops and others? ★What is the best way to haggle ? ★Do you get a guarantee, when you buy things in your country? Do you think it’s important? ★Are there any pickpockets in your city? What should we do with these people?

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★Girls like shopping more than boys do? Do you agree or disagree discu sbs? ★Are there any duty free shops in your city? Do you go to them ? ★How is the business of most of the shops in your city? 13. Describe your favourite teacher or your grandparent : 一级重要

What is the name of this teacher?

What did he teach you?

Why he/she is your favourite teacher?

Do you think choosing teaching, as a career is a wise decision?

Did you find any differences between foreign teachers and local teachers?

Extra Questions: ★What are the main differences of secondary education between now and past? ★How are most schools in your city? ★What kinds of schools are popular in your city? ★Does multimedia education affect the interest of students? 14. Describe the style of clothes you wear? 一级重要

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Where do you often buy your clothes?

When?

How to choose your clothes?

Explain why you like the type of clothing .

Extra Questions: ★Why do some people not like shopping? ★Is important for someone to express themselves through their clothing ?

★How can you know a person

through their clothing ? ★What do you think about fashion? ★Do you think that expensive brand name clothes are worth the money ? Why ★Why young people like following fashion? What are the disadvantages

of young people following fashion? 15. Describe a traditional Chinese Dress: 一级重要

What are the distinctive features of this dress?

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How popular is this from of dress in China?

When do people normally wear it?

Is it expensive or cheap?

Extra question: ★What are the differences between the fashion of modern China and Old China? ★What sorts of clothes are popular in China, traditional clothes or the cl othes from foreign countries? ★Are clothes with fancy embroidery popular in your country? Do you lik e them? Why? ★What are the differences between the clothes of men and women in

your city? ★What do students wear in your country? ★Are suits and jeans popular in your country? ★When do you normally shop for clothes? Why? ★Should we spend a lot of money on buying expensive clothing? Why? ★Usually, what kinds of clothes do people wear on special occasion in

China?
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16 .Online education: 二级重要

You must say:

Is online education real education?

Will it affect the business of real schools and universities?

Is an online degree recognized in your country? If not do you think it sh ould be?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of online education?

Will it affect teachers?

In the future will no one go to schools just because of online education?

Should computers be used in the classroom? Why?

Should all the teachers and students learn how to operate computers ?

? What is the name of your school and its location?

? What are the main subjects taught in your school?

? Are you satisfied with the teaching method of your school

? Were you ever punished at school? Why? How?

? What is your opinion on co-education?

17.

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Describe your favorite car

what kind of car is it?

What if any, special features does it have?

Do you feel it is safe?

Part3:

What is the traffic situation like in your hometown?

What are the advantages and disadvantage of riding a bike in your city

what are the major problems this city might have if the use of private car s continues to increase?

How to restrict the use of private cars?

Which kind of vehicle is most dangerous?

The responsibility of Government

18.

Describe something you are good at. You should say:

Where is it?

Where and when did you learn it?

How often do you do it?

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19

Describe an entertainment place:

Where is it?

What is it used for?

Why do people go there?

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Describe an advertisement you have seen or heard , you should say:

What is it about?

Where did you see or hear it?

Why do you like it? Describe the best time in a day ?

Do you like to make a timetable every?

How about others ?

Others prefer a fixed timetable or not? 你对一夜暴富怎么看?

Local events

Wedding
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2004 年 7 月 17 日雅思作文真题 Task1:关于 China,US,Spain 人口数量的以及三国人口年龄的变化。 共 2 幅图。 Task2:(2003 年 11 月 15 日旧题) Computers do not help children to learn more effectively. On the country, the use of computers in schools has a negative effec t on children's physical and mental development. To what extent do you agree or disagree? 2004 年 7 月 10 日雅思写作真题 Task 1: Table: the percentage of young smokers in England from 1988 to 1998. Descripe this table. Task 2: Nowadays, fresh water has always been insufficient in some parts of the world. Please give the causes and some solutions and pro vide examples and evidences in your own words. 2004 年 6 月 26 日雅思 A 类 Task1 真题 2004 年 6 月 26 日雅思 A 类 Task1 真题(图)

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2004 年 3 月 13 日雅思作文真题(图文) 2004 年 3 月 13 日雅思作文真题(图文)

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雅思阅读模拟试题:音乐

Background music may seem harmless, but it can have a powerful effect on th ose who hear it. Recorded background music first found its way into factories, shop and restaurants in the US. But it soon spread to other arts of the world.

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Now it is becoming increasingly difficult to go shopping or eat a meal witho ut listening to music.

To begin with, “ muzak ” (音乐广播网) was intended simply to create a sooth ing (安慰) atmosphere. Recently, however, it’s become big business –thanks in part to recent research. Dr. Ronald Milliman, an American marketing expert, has shown that music can boost sales or increase factory production by as mu ch as a third.

But, it has to be light music. A fast one has no effect at all on sales. Slow music can increase receipts by 38%. This is probably because shoppers slow d own and have more opportunity to spot items they like to buy. Yet, slow mus ic isn’t always answer. Dr.Milliman found, for example, that in restaurants slo w music meant customers took longer to eat their meals, which reduced overal l sales. So restaurants owners might be well advised to play up-tempo music t o keep the customers moving – unless of course, the resulting indigestion lead s to complaints!

练习( )1. The reason why background music is so popular is that ______.

A. it can have a powerful effect on those who hear it

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B. it can help to create a soothing atmosphere

C. it can boost sales or increase factory production everywhere

D. it can make customers eat their meals quickly

( )2. Background music means ________.

A. light music that customers enjoy most

B. fast music that makes people move fast

C. slow music that can make customers enjoy their meals

D. the music you are listening to while you are doing something

( )3. Restaurant owners complain about background music because ______.

A. it results in indigestion

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B. it increases their sales

C. it keeps customers moving

D. it decreases their sales

( )4. The word “ up-tempo music” probably means_____.

A.slow music

B.fast music

C.light music

D.classical music

注释:1. spread to 传到, 波及, 蔓延到

2. to begin with 首先;第一点(理由)

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To begin with, we must consider the faculties of the staff all-sidedly.

首先,我们必须全面地考虑全体员工的素质。

3. intend vt.想要, 打算, 意指, 意谓

4. boost 增进;改善

We need to boost our spirits. 我们需要鼓舞士气。

5. have to be [美, 口]肯定是。。。, 毫无疑问是。。。

6. receipt 收据; 收条 When you have paid for sth., a receipt is given to you.

当你付了某个东西的钱时,就给了你收据。

接受;收到

(pl) 收入;收益 higher receipts 高收入

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7. slow down v.(使)慢下来

答案: 1 B 2 D 3 D 4 B 雅思阅读模拟试题:钱币 In the earliest stages of man’s development he had no more need of money th an animals have. He was content with very simple forms of shelter, made his own rough tools and weapons and could provide food and clothing for himself and his family from natural materials around him. As he became more civiliz ed, however, he began to want better shelter, more efficient tools and weapons, and more comfortable and more lasting clothing than could be provided by hi s own neighborhood or by the work of his own unskilled hands. For these thi ngs he had to turn to the skilled people such as smiths, leather workers or car penters. It was then that the question of payment arose.

At first he got what he wanted by a simple process of exchange. The smith w ho had not the time to look after land or cattle was glad to take meat or grai n from the farmer in exchange for an axe or a plough. But as more and more goods which had no fixed exchange value came on the market, exchange bec ame too complicated to be satisfactory. Another problem arose when those wh o made things wanted to get stocks of wood or leather, or iron, but had nothi ng to offer in exchange until their finished goods were ready.

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Thus the difficulties of exchange led by degrees to the invention of money. In some countries easily handled things like seeds or shells were given a certain value and the farmer, instead of paying the smith for a new axe by giving hi m some meat or grain, gave him so many shells. If the smith had any shells l eft when he had bought his food, he could get stocks of the raw materials of his trade. In some countries quite large things such as cows or camels or even big flat stones were used for trade. Later, pieces of metal, bearing values acc ording to the rarity of the metal and the size of the pieces, or coins were use d. Money as we know it had arrived.

练习 1 Exchange of goods became difficult because _________.

A: man became more civilized

B: smiths began to look after land or cattle in their spare time

C: more and more goods which had no fixed exchange values came to the ma rker

D farmers hadn’t enough grain or meat to provide for skilled workers

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2 Money was not used until _______.

A: paper was invented

B: people practiced a simple process of exchange

C: nothing could be offered in exchange

D: the exchange of one thing for another became too complicated

3 The best title for this passage is _____.

A: What is money

B: What are money’s functions.

C: The importance of money

D: The beginning of money

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注释:

1 stage 阶段;时期 at an early stage in our history

在我们的历史早期

(前面与 the 连用)演员生涯;剧院工作;戏剧工作 行程,旅程

to travel by easy stages 从容旅行

2 content n.内容, 容量, 目录, 满足 adj.满足的, 满意的, 愿意 vt.使满足

We should never content ourselves with a little book knowledge only.

我们切不可满足于仅仅有一点点书本知识。

3 shelter n.掩蔽处, 身避处, 掩蔽, 保护, 庇护所, 掩体 v.掩蔽, 躲避

He stood in the shelter at the bus stop.

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他站在公共汽车站的候车亭里。

4 smith n.铁匠, 金属品工匠

leather n.皮革, 皮革制品

carpenter n.木匠

5 axe or plough 斧或犁

6 complicate 使复杂化, 使错综加重(疾病)使混乱[难做、难懂]; 使恶化

be complicated in 卷入。。。(的麻烦中)

Don't complicate life for me!

不要为我把生活搞复杂了!

答案:1:C 2: D 3: D

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雅思考试写作 12 大万能理由和写作思路 十二大万能理由 1 方便 convenience 2 情感 feeling(or sensibility) 3 经验 experience 4 成就 achievement 5 效率 efficiency 6 健康 health 7 节俭 thrift(or save money) 8 安全 safety 9 性格培养 character cultivation 10 乐趣 fun 11 耐久 endurance 12 环保 environment protection 部分雅思命题写作思路

1. Smoking

For:(means agree or advantages)
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1. it is pleasurable and relaxing

2. it is one's right

3. it is difficult to stop smoking

6. it makes socializing easier

7. it is an important source of tax revenue

Against: (means disagree or disadvantages)

1. it is harmful to one's health (e.g., heart disease, bronchial

trouble, lung cancer )

2. it is harmful to those nearby

4. it is addictive (i.e., nicotine)

2. School Uniforms

For:

1. they eliminate class differences

2. they allow students to better concentrate on their studies

3. they are popular with parents and administrators

4. they are inexpensive

5. they are attractive and neat
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6. they eliminate the need to choose what to wear every day

7. many countries have them

Against:

1. they are disliked by students (students like to primp)

2. they create a military mentality

3. they are an infringement on our freedom (different strokes for different folk s)

4. they are ugly and childish

3. Legalized Gambling

For:

1. it is a source of government revenue

2. it is an old practice dating back thousands of years

3. it is pleasurable (e.g., horse racing, casinos)

4. many people play poker and mahjong

Against:

1. it can become addictive

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2. it can destroy happy families

3. it can lead to suicide

4. it is easily controlled by the Mafia (e.g., bookmakers )

4. City Life

For:

1. it is exciting

2. it offers the best schools, hospitals, and stores

3. it offers many entertainments (e.g., swimming pools, bowling alleys, and spo rts stadiums )

4. it offers many chances of employment

5. cities have an efficient public transportation system Against :

1. it is unhealthy (e.g., water and air pollution in industry )

2. it is not a good environment for children

3. it is noisy and dangerous

4. it makes people nervous

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5. cities are overcrowded and expensive

5. Informing Patients Of Cancer

For: 1. patient’s right to know

2. it is wrong to hide the truth

3. it gives the patient a chance to plan his last days

4. doctors must do it (in some country like the U. S.)

Against:

1. it is heartless and cruel

2. it may make the patient give up

3. it causes depression

4. it can lead to suicide

6. Social Security

For:

1. the state should help the poor, aged, unemployed, and sick
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2. the state should provide good health care for its citizens

3. there will always be social misfits that need help

4. all religions focus on charity

5. all advanced countries have some form of social security Against :

1. it costs too much

2. it encourages laziness and destroys the work ethic

3. people should look after themselves

4. it results in heavy taxes

7.Coeducation For :

1. it is natural (i.e., adult society is not segregated )

2. it gives men and women a chance to better understand one another

3. it gives men and women a chance to compete with one another

4. it has many practical advantages (e.g., school plays, music groups) Against :
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1. women do better academically in their own colleges

2. women are in college to get an education, not a husband

3. it is still rare in some countries

4. it robs women of their self-confidence

8. Corporal Punishment For :

1. children are not adults

2. children respect discipline

3. it is a form of training

4. it builds real character

5. it works to control juvenile delinquency Against :

1. it is not a civilized way

2. love is better than physical punishment

3. it can cause psychological problems

4. there is the saying : Violence begets violence
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9.Organ Transplants For :

1. they prolong life

2. they are supported by the medical profession

3. critically ill people want transplants in order to live Against :

1. they are too expensive

2. they are unnatural as seen by the body' s rejection

3. they are often unsuccessful

10.Civil Disobedience(文明抵制) For : Against :

1. no one is above the law

2. it can quickly destroy law and order

3. it leads to chaos of society

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4. it leads to contempt for all laws

11.Abortion

Against:

1. it is murder (infanticide)

2. it is an unnatural practice

3. a fetus is a human being -- unborn but viable

4. the rights of a fetus must be protected

5. it causes many women to have guilt feelings

12. Equality Of the Sexes For :

1. both men and women have equal human rights

2. most companies have adopted equal pay for equal work

3. there are no skills women cannot master

4. women are superior to men in some fields

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13.Foreign Aid For :

1. it is humanism

2. the rich should help the poor

3. all religions teach charity

4.it promotes national security

14.Divorce For :

1. it is the logical solution to a bad marriage

2. it allows both persons to seek happiness in a second marriage

3. remarriage is a right

4. children are better off living with one parent than with both in an unhappy environment

15.Compulsory Military Service For :

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1. it aims to strengthen national defense

2. it teaches young men discipline

3. it builds character and physical fitness

4. it teaches valuable skills

5. it nurtures a spirit of comradeship an equality

6. it offers opportunities for overseas travel

7. it exists in many countries (e.g., Switzerland, Singapore)

8. it reduces unemployment

9. it instills a sense of patriotism

Against:

1. it is unnecessary in view of today' s professional armies

2. it is a step away from peace 3. it is useless in today’s peace world

4. today' s armies do not need unskilled manpower

16.Voluntary Euthanasia For :
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1. it is a basic right-the right to die

2. it allows one to die with dignity

3. it allows one to choose the time and place of death

4. it is painless

5. it is the solution to a terminal illness with suffering Against :

1. it is murder or suicide

2. it is illegal in most countries

3. most doctors oppose it

17.Capital Punishment(死刑)

For:

1. it frightens would-be criminals (acts as a deterrent )

2. it serves as a just reward for killers

3. it lowers crime rates

4. it is more economical than a life sentence (saves the state money)

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18.Trade Protectionism Against :

1. it invites retaliation

2. it invites reciprocity based on a quid pro quo basis

3. it hurts poor, underdeveloped countries

4. it leads to trade wars

5. it costs taxpayers large sums of money

19.Nuclear Power

For:

1. it provides huge amounts of energy from small amounts of fuel

2. the world' s supply of oil will be exhausted in 90 years

3. it could supply all the world' s electricity for millions of years if fully deve loped

4. nuclear power plants create less air pollution than fossil-fuel power plants

20. Library: Computer V.S. Books

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Computer:

For:

1) Efficiency

2) Large storage capacity

3) Multimedia attraction

5) Sharing information

6) Network or Internet

7) Rapid updating

Books:

For:

1) Traditional medium

2) Easy to carry

3) Conveniently read

4) index of academic environment

Against:

1) Not durable
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2) Low rate of updating

3) Can't be shared by any people

22 University: library V.S. Physical training facilities

For:

Library:

1) Major goal to impart knowledge to students

2) Index of academic environment

3) Attract more excellent professors

Physical Training:

1) Help to improve one's health which is basis of study

2) Students learn to be cooperative

3) Provide relaxation

4) May produce good athletes 雅思口语考试的实战题目2(推荐)

33 描述一下你认为适合居住的房子 idea house

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1、它会在哪里?

2、它的外观是什么样的?

3、它里面是什么样子?

4、为什么你认为它适合你?

大部分人认为好的房子是什么样的?为什么人们认为要大点空间的房子? 为什么认为要保留老的建筑?

住在城市和住在乡下有什么不同?

34. garden and park ?how often? where is this park? which people like it?

接着问了 garden 的重要性?中国会不会很多人有自己的 garden?他们通常用 来干什么?种什么?如果你将来有一个 garden,你打算种什么?你以前有没有种过植 物?有没有生长?围绕着 garden 来问,问小时侯经常在什么地方玩?现在去郊区 方便吗?现在的小孩跟以前小孩的童年有什么不同?认为家里有个花园重要 吗?为什么在同一片地区的人家里的花园会不一样?

35.参加运动有什么好处?你从体育活动中得到了什么?

团队合作重要吗?是否应该有世界性的 sports events?

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政府是否应该支持大型运动活动?为什么?

为什么会有那么多球迷支持一只球队?

烟草商(tobacconist)赞助体育活动可以接受吗?

36. describe sth. make u feel exciting

37.书籍图书馆

what do you do? student or work?

where are you from?

could you describe it to me?

cue card: tell a book/story read before

what is the name?(还问是什么类型的书)

when read it?

what influence it brings to you?

what is the role do you think a liberay performs?
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what is the role of the book possesses in the education?

what is your opinions about read for fun and read for purpose?

你平时去那些图书馆?图书馆有那些设备?图书馆应该有什么改进?你喜 欢怎样读书, 在图书馆看还是借回去看?*你认为中国每一个乡村和城市都有图书 馆吗?*在你看来大多数中国人读书是为了学习还是消遣?你喜欢小说吗?*有些作 品可以被人们代代相传流芳百世,它们取得这样的成就有什么条件?你理想中的 图书馆应该是什么样的?

38.社会福利 social welfare

talk abouth the social welfare you know, such like the senior citizen

pensions,the disable people funds,etc.

以下是海外考的怪题:

1. succeed of your country。第三部分问:你们国家的成功对本国的影响以 及在国际上的作用是什么?

2.你的人生目标是什么,(你出国的打算和要去哪个国家)

为了方便大家区分 p1 p2 p3 我从其他大侠那里收集来这些卡片,除了这些以
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外的都是 p1 p3 部分了.

describe a festival in your country.

what festival it is

how people celebrate it

why it is important

explain what is special about it

describe your favorite way of transport.what it is

why you like it

the advantages and disadvantages of it

explain how often you use it.

describe something which was made by yourselfwhat you made

how you made it

what it was used for
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explain how you felt after it was finished.

describe your best friend.how you knew each other how you became friends

how you spend time together

explain why he/she is your best friend

describe the trip you took some time ago.when you took it

how you got there

what you saw there

explain why you liked it.

describe a teacher who you liked.when this teacher taught you

what subject he/she taught

why you liked her

explain how he influenced you.
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describe a restaurant where you often go to. what the name of the

restaurant is

the location of this restaurant

why you often go there

explain what is special about this restaurant.

describe one of your favorite cities.when you went to this city

what you saw in this city

what is special about this city

explain why you like this city.

describe a type of pollution in your hometown.what it is

what effect it has on the environment

how can we solve the problem

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explain why this situation should be taken seriously.

describe the function of music in our life. what music you like to listen t o

why you like to listen to music

how often you listen to music

explain why music is important in our life.

describe a hobby.what your hobby is

when you had this hobby

how you do it

explain the benefits of having this hobby.

describe a sport you like to do.what sport it is

how you play it

how often you play it

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explain what benefits you can get from it.

describe a famous person you admire.

who this person was

what he did

what was special about him or her

explain why you would like to meet him or her

describe the worst weather in your life

what it was

when it happened

how you felt

explain your experience in details.

describe your favorite book.

what the book is called
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what it talks about

what you learn from it

explain why this book is your favorite.

describe a building.

what it is

what the location is

what it looks like

explain why you want to talk about it. Speaking Topic 澳洲雅思常考 37 个口语 TOPIC

Speaking Topic in Australia

1)Gift

2)Traditional Cloth

3)Old Person

4)Music
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5)Singer or band

6)Time

7)Newspaper/ magazine

8)Apartment/house

9)Character in film or TV program

10)Three days holiday, where will you go

11)The way of relaxation

12)Family event

13)Good family news

14)Happy event in childhood

15)The happiest experience in childhood

16)Important decision

17)Family member

18)Wedding

19)Child you know

20)A wild animal

21)Animal or pet you raised
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22)National product

23)Expensive thing you want to buy

24)Neighbour

25)Important city in your country

26)The time when you receive help

27)Website

28)Visit

29)Special meal

30)Favourite food

31)Sport event

32)Birthday

33)Exciting trip

34)Transport

35)Sea/river/lake

36)A toy

37)Story when you were a child(xyzqia) 雅思真经句型英汉互译-简单句并列句短语
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一 简单句

1、广告给我们提供了很多有用的信息。

Advertisements provide us with much useful information.

2、旅游者有机会体验一种完全不同的文化。

Tourists have chance to experience a completely different culture.

3、它需要政府私人团体的共同努力。

It calls for the joint efforts of government and private sector.

4、人们变得越来越自私和贪婪。

People have become increasingly self-centered and greedy.

5、某些新闻机构因为不客观报道而著名。

Certain news organizations have reputation for not presenting the news obj ectively.

6、电影电视上的大量暴力构成对社会的威胁。

The large amount of violence in films and on television constitutes a thre at to society.

7、全球化并不意味着民族身份的丧失。

Globalization does not necessarily mean the loss of their national identity.

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8、艺术项目应该由为了利润的私人团体去发展

Artistic projects should be developed by the private sector for profit.

9、网络对涉世不深的孩子会施加大量的副面影响

Internet exerts great negative impact on the innocent minds of the young.

10、飞机运输蔬菜和水果使人们有各种食物的选择

The transportation of fruits and vegetables by air might enable people to have a variety of food choices.

11、基因移植的植物不会象生长在原产地那么有风味

Genetically modified plants are not as tasty as those grown in their origin al areas.

12、最普遍的犯罪原因是贫困

The most common reason for crime is poverty.

13、我们已经介绍了很多控制犯罪的方式

We have introduced many ways of controlling crimes.

14、我们能获得比普通图书馆更广泛更丰富的资源

We can access a wider variety of sources than the average library can pro vide.

15、公共图书馆有义务服务全社会
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Libraries are supposed to serve the entire community.

16、一些人忘记了他们的传统、历史和文化

Some people have forgotten their own tradition, history and culture. 雅思分类词汇:家庭相关词汇(The Family) relations, relatives, kinfolk, kin 亲属 my family 我家 my people 我家人 next of kin 近亲 family life 家庭生活 caste 社会地位 generation 代 branch 支,系 tribe 部族,部落 clan 氏族 race, breed 种族 lineage 宗族,世系 stock 门第,血统
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of noble birth 贵族出身 of humble birth 平民出身 dynasty 朝代 origin 出身 ancestry 祖先,先辈 ancestors, forebears, forefathers 祖先 extraction 家世 descent, offspring 后代,后辈 descendants 后代,晚辈 progeny, issue 后裔 succession 继承 consanguinity, blood relationship 血缘 kinsmen by blood 血亲 affinity 姻亲关系,嫡戚关系 kinsmen by affinity 姻亲 blood 血 family tree 家谱
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雅思分类词汇:颜色 Colours(pink 粉红色) pink 粉红色 salmon pink 橙红色 baby pink 浅粉红色 shocking pink 鲜粉红色 brown 褐色, 茶色 beige 灰褐色 chocolate 红褐色, 赭石色 sandy beige 浅褐色 camel 驼色 amber 琥珀色 khaki 卡其色 maroon 褐红色 green 绿色 moss green 苔绿色 emerald green 鲜绿色 olive green 橄榄绿
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blue 蓝色 turquoise blue 土耳其玉色 cobalt blue 钴蓝色, 艳蓝色 navy blue 藏青色, 深蓝色, 天蓝色 aquamarine blue 蓝绿色 red 红色 scarlet 绯红, 猩红 mauve 紫红 wine red 葡萄酒红 purple, violet 紫色 lavender 淡紫色 lilac 浅紫色 antique violet 古紫色 pansy 紫罗兰色 white 白色 off-white 灰白色 ivory 象牙色
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snowy white 雪白色 oyster white 乳白色 gray 灰色 charcoal gray 炭灰色 smoky gray 烟灰色 misty gray 雾灰色 雅思精彩语句大全 No one can deny the fact that a person’s education is the most important aspe ct of his life. 没有人能否人这一事实:教育是人生最重要的一方面.

People equate success in life with the ability of operating computer . 人们把会使用计算机与人生成功相提并论

According to a recent survey ,four-million people die each year from diseases linked to smoking. 依照最近的一项调查,每年有 4,000,000 人死于与吸烟相关的疾病.

The latest surveys show that Quiet a few children have unpleasant associations with homework. 最近的调查显示相当多的孩子对家庭作业没什么好感.

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No invention has received more praise and abuse than Internet. 没有一项发明象互联网同时受到如此多的赞扬和批评.

People seem to fail to take into account the fact that education does not end with graduation. 人们似乎忽视了教育不应该随着毕业而结束这一事实. Many experts point out that physical exercise contributes directly to a person’s physical fitness. 许多专家指出体育锻炼直接有助于身体健康.

Nowadays ,many students always go into raptures at the mere mention of the coming life of high school or college they will begin. Unfortunately ,for most young people ,it is not pleasant experience on their first day on campus. 当前,一提到即将开始的学校生活,许多学生都会兴高采烈.然而,对多数年轻人来 说,校园刚开始的日子并不是什么愉快的经历.

In view of the seriousness of this problem ,effective measures should be taken before things get worse. 考虑到问题的严重性,在事态进一步恶化之前,必须采取有效的措施.

Proper measures must be taken to limit the number of foreign tourists and the great efforts should be made to protect local environment and history from th e harmful effects of international tourism. 应该采取适当的措施限制外国旅游者的数量,努力保护当地环境和历史不受国际 旅游业的不利影响.

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An increasing number of experts believe that migrants will exert positive effect s on construction of city .However ,this opinion is now being questioned by m ore and more city residents ,who complain that the migrants have brought man y serious problems like crime and prostitution. 越来越多的专家相信移民对城市的建设起到积极作用.然而,越来越多的城市居民 却怀疑这种说法,他们抱怨民工给城市带来了许多严重的问题,象犯罪和卖淫.

Many city residents complain that it is so few buses in their city that they ha ve to spend much more time waiting for a bus ,which is usually crowded with a large number of passengers. 许多市民抱怨城市的公交车太少,以至于他们要花很长时间等一辆公交车,而车上 可能已满载乘客.

There is no denying the fact that air pollution is an extremely serious problem :the city authorities should take strong measures to deal with it. 无可否认, 空气污染是一个极其严重的问题:城市当局应该采取有力措施来解决 它。

An investigation shows that female workers tend to have a favorable attitude t oward retirement. 一项调查显示妇女欢迎退休.

A proper part-time job does not occupy student"s too much time .In fact ,it is unhealthy for them to spend all of time on their study .As an old saying goe s :All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy 一份适当的业余工作并不会占用学生太多的时间,事实上,把全部的时间都用到学 习上并不健康,正如那句老话:只工作,不玩耍,聪明的孩子会变傻.
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Any government which is blind to this point may pay a heavy price. 任何政府忽视这一点都将付出巨大的代价.

An increasing number of people are beginning to realize that education is not complete with graduation. 越来越多的人开始意识到教育不能随着毕业而结束.

When it comes to education ,the majority of people believe that education is a lifetime study. 说到教育,大部分人认为其是一个终生的学习.

The majority of students believe that part-time job will provide them with mor e opportunities to develop their interpersonal skills ,which may put them in a f avorable position in the future job markets. 大部分学生相信业余工作会使他们有更多机会发展人际交往能力,而这对他们未 来找工作是非常有好处的.

It is indisputable that there are millions of people who still have a miserable l ife and have to fact the dangers of starvation and exposure. 无可争辩,现在有成千上万的人仍过着挨饿受冬的痛苦生活.

Although this view is widely held ,this is little evidence that education can be obtained at any age and at any place. 尽管这一观点被广泛接受,很少有证据表明教育能够在任何地点任何年龄进行

雅思分类词汇:报刊常用术语

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acredited journalist n. 特派记者 advertisment n.广告 . advance n.预发消息;预写消息 affair(e) n.桃色新闻;绯闻 anecdote n.趣闻轶事 assignment n.采写任务 attribution n. 消息出处,消息来源 back alley news n. 小道消息 backgrounding n.新闻背景 Bad news travels quickly. 坏事传千里。 banner n.通栏标题 beat n.采写范围 blank vt. "开天窗" body n. 新闻正文 boil vt.压缩(篇幅) box n. 花边新闻 brief n. 简讯 bulletin n.新闻简报 byline n. 署名文章 caption n.图片说明 caricature n.漫画 carry vt.刊登 cartoon n.漫画 censor vt. 审查(新闻稿件),新闻审查 chart n.每周流行音乐排行版
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clipping n.剪报 column n.专栏;栏目 columnist n.专栏作家 continued story 连载故事;连载小说 contributing editor 特约编辑 contribution n.(投给报刊的)稿件;投稿 contributor n.投稿人 copy desk n.新闻编辑部 copy editor n.文字编辑 correction n.更正(启事) correspondence column 读者来信专栏 correspondent n.驻外记者;常驻外埠记者 cover vt.采访;采写 covergirl n. 封面女郎 covert coverage 隐性采访;秘密采访 crop vt.剪辑(图片) crusade n.宣传攻势 cut n.插图 vt.删减(字数) cutline n.插图说明 daily n.日报 dateline n.新闻电头 deadline n.截稿时间 dig vt.深入采访;追踪(新闻线索);“挖”(新闻) digest n.文摘 editorial n.社论
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editorial office 编辑部 editor's notes 编者按 exclusive n.独家新闻 expose n.揭丑新闻;新闻曝光 extra n.号外 eye-account n.目击记;记者见闻 faxed photo 传真照片 feature n.特写;专稿 feedback n.信息反馈 file n.发送消息;发稿 filler n.补白 First Amendment (美国宪法)第一修正案(内容有关新闻、出版自由等) five "W's" of news 新闻五要素 flag n.报头;报名 folo (=follow-up) n.连续报道 Fourth Estate 第四等级(新闻界的别称) freedom of the Press 新闻自由 free-lancer n.自由撰稿人 full position 醒目位置 Good news comes on crutches. 好事不出门。 grapevine n.小道消息 gutter n.中缝 hard news 硬新闻;纯消息 headline n.新闻标题;内容提要 hearsay n.小道消息
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highlights n. 要闻 hot news 热点新闻 human interest 人情味 ib-depth reporting 深度报道 insert n.& vt.插补段落;插稿 interpretative reporting 解释性报道 invasion of privacy 侵犯隐私(权) inverted pyramid 倒金字塔(写作结构) investigative reporting 调查性报道 journaslism n.新闻业;新闻学 Journalism is literature in a hurry 新闻是急就文学. journalist n.新闻记者 kill vt.退弃(稿件);枪毙(稿件) layout n.版面编排;版面设计 lead n.导语 libel n. 诽谤(罪) makeup n. 版面设计 man of the year 年度新闻人物,年度风云人物 mass communication 大众传播(学) mass media 大众传播媒介 masterhead n.报头;报名 media n.媒介,媒体 Mere report is not enough to go upon.仅是传闻不足为凭. morgue n.报刊资料室 news agency 通讯社
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news clue 新闻线索 news peg 新闻线索,新闻电头 newsprint n.新闻纸 news value 新闻价值 No news is good news.没有消息就是好消息;不闻凶讯便是吉。 nose for news 新闻敏感 obituary n.讣告 objectivity n.客观性 off the record 不宜公开报道 opinion poll 民意浏验 periodical n.期刊 pipeline n.匿名消息来源 popular paper 大众化报纸;通俗报纸 press n.报界;新闻界 press conference 新闻发布会;记者招待台 press law 新闻法 press release 新闻公告;新闻简报 PR man 公关先生 profile n. 人物专访;人物特写 proofreader n.校对员 pseudo event 假新闻 quality paper 高级报纸;严肃报纸 quarterly n.季刊 readability n.可读性 reader's interest 读者兴越
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reject vt.退弃(稿件) remuneration n. 稿费;稿酬 reporter n.记者 rewrite vt. 改写(稿件),改稿 round-up n.综合消息 scandal n.丑闻 scoop vt.“抢”(新闻) n.独家新闻 sensational a.耸人听闻的;具有轰动效应的 sex scandal 桃色新闻 sidebar n.花絮新闻 slant n.主观报道;片面报道 slink ink “爬格子” softnews 软新闻 source n.新闻来源;消息灵通人士 spike vt.退弃(稿件);“枪毙”(稿件) stone vt.拼版 story n.消息;稿件;文章 stringer n.特约记者;通讯员 subhead n.小标题;副标题 supplement n.号外;副刊;增刊 suspended interest 悬念 thumbnail n.“豆腐干”(文章) timeliness n.时效性;时新性 tip n.内幕新闻;秘密消息 trim n. 删改(稿件)
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update n.更新(新闻内容),增强(时效性) watchdog n.&vt.舆论监督 weekly n.周报 wire service n.通讯社 雅思分类词汇:爱的表达 ● 爱 love; affection,like; be fond of; be keen on,cherish; hold dear; take go od care of; treasure,be apt to; be in the habit of ● 母爱 maternal love; mother love; a mother's love for her children; mate rnal affection ● 父爱 paternal love ● 父母的爱 parental love ● 父母子女间的爱 love between parent and child ● 子女对长辈的爱 filial love ● 互爱 reciprocal affection ● 慈爱 the benevolent affections ● 疼爱 the tender love ● 夫妻之爱 conjugal love ● 深深[永恒,真挚,贞洁,坚定不移]的爱 ardent [everlasting, sincere, cha ste, steadfast] love ● 狂热的爱 fanatic love; wild love ● 强烈的爱 a keen affection ● 爱如己出 cherish a child as one's own ● 爱恨交织 be overwhelmed by mixed lovehate feelings ● 爱憎分明 have a clearcut stand on what to love and what to hate
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● 爱莫能助 be sympathetic but have no ability to help; be willing to, but powerless to render assistance ● 爱校如家 love the school as dearly as one does one's own home ● 永远相爱 love each other with an undying affection ● 疼爱某人 dearly love sb.; set one's affection on sb. ● 终生钟爱妻子 retain a tender affection for one's wife to the end of one 's life ● 真诚[温柔,疯狂,盲目]地爱 love sincerely [tenderly, wildly, blindly] ● 专一[忠诚]地爱某人 love sb. devotedly [loyally] ● 至死不渝地爱某人 love sb. to the day of one's death ● 炽热地爱…… have a burning love for... ● 爱上某人 fall in love with sb.; grow tender of sb. ● 爱子女 feel affection to one's children; have an affection for one's child ren ● 表示对某人的爱 show love to sb. ● 公开表示对某人的爱 declare one's love to sb. ● 渴望得到某人的爱 desire the love of sb. ● 需要母爱 need a mother care ● 怀疑某人对……的爱 doubt sb.'s love for... ● 博得某人的爱 earn sb.'s love; win sb.'s love ● 保持对某人的爱 keep one's affection of sb.; retain one's love for sb. ● 激起对……的爱 inspire a love for... 2005 年雅思考试口语话题汇总 1.A work of art 一件艺术作品
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2.A book you want to write 想写的书 3.Birthday 一次生日晚会 4.building in your school or university 学校中的建筑物 5.Character 电影中角色 6.Child 儿童 7.City 一个重要的城市 8.Clothes or jewelry 特别场合你的一件衣服或珠宝 9.Company 朋友家人工作的公司 10.Difficult thing 你做成的难事 11.exciting experience 一次刺激的旅行 12.expensive thing 你想拥有的昂贵东西 13.Family event 家中的高兴事 14.Family member who influenced you/You admire 你崇拜的家人 15.A past family member who led an interesting life 生活有趣的过世家人 16.First day at school 开学的第一天 17.Free day/time 自由的一天 18.Garden/park 喜爱的花园或公园
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19.Gift 礼物 20.Good at 你擅长的技能 21.Happy childhood 快乐童年 22.Happy person 幸福的人 23.Help 你得到的一次帮助 24.Historical Place 历史古迹 25.House 理想中的房子 26.Neighbor 邻居 27.Newspaper or magazine 报纸或杂志 28.Project 你与别人合作的事情 29.Positive change 人生中的好改变 30.Product 当地的一种产品 31.Relaxation 放松的方式 32.Room 最喜爱的房间 33.Season 四季 34.Special meal 你吃的一顿特别饭 35.Store 常去的商场
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36.Story in childhood 童年听过的故事 37.Successful person 成功的人 38.Toy 玩具 39.TV program 电视节目 40.Vehicle 你想买的一辆车,要了解车的性能,价格,颜色等等 41.three-day holiday 三天假期 42.sth you learned from culture 另一种文化 43.wild animal 野生动物 44.adventurous person 一个冒险的人 45.small business you want to have 想从事的小生意 46.center 体育或某种中心 2006 年雅思(IELTS)考试写作的基本句式(上)

以下是短文写作中使用率最高、覆盖面最广的基本句式,每组句式的功能相同 或相似,考生可根据自己的情况选择其中的 1-2 个,做到能够熟练正确地仿写 或套用。 1.表示原因 1)There are three reasons for this. 2)The reasons for this are as follows. 3)The reason for this is obvious. 4)The reason for this is not far to seek. 5)The reason for this is that...

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6)We have good reason to believe that... 例如: There are three reasons for the changes that have taken place in our life.Firstly,pe ople’s living standard has b 2006 年雅思(IELTS)考试写作的基本句式(下)

7.表示事实、现状 1)We cannot ignore the fact that... 2)No one can deny the fact that... 3)There is no denying the fact that... 4)This is a phenomenon that many people are interested in. 5)However,that’s not the case. 例如: We cannot ignore the fact that industrialization brings with it the problems of polluti on.To solve these problems, we can start by educating the public about the hazard s of pollution.The government on its part should also design stricter laws to promot e a cleaner environment. 8.表示比较 1)Compared with A,B... 2)I prefer to read rather than watch TV. 3)There is a striking contrast between

作文:task1 讲有个 town 要建一个 supermarket,有二个地点给你选择。主要只 是看你选哪个地点,并说明原因

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task1 讲有个 town 要建一个 supermarket,有二个地点给你选择。主要只是看你选 哪个地点,并说明原因 task2 在许多国家里,women 和男性一样 join the army force,有些人认为只 需要男性,你同意吗?

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