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形容词: 贫穷的:poor = needy = impoverished = poverty-stricken 富裕的:rich = wealthy = affluent = well-to-do = well-off 优秀的:excellent = eminent = top = outstanding 积极的,好的:good = conducive = beneficial=advantageous 消极的,不良的:bad = detrimental= baneful =undesirable 明显的:obvious = apparent = evident =manifest 健康的:healthy = robust = sound = wholesome 惊人的:surprising = amazing = extraordinary = miraculous 美丽的:beautiful = attractive = gorgeous = eye-catching 有活力的:energetic = dynamic = vigorous =animated 流行的:popular = prevailing = prevalent= pervasive 合适的:suitable/ advisable/ sound/ temperate/ rational/ preferable/ reliable/ fitting/ modest/ moderate 精致的:elegant/ delicate/ elaborate 美好的: gorgeous/ glorious/ splendid/ admirable/ breathtaking/ impressive/ spectacular/ superb 杰出的:outstanding/ distinguished/ eminent/ excellent/ supreme/ extraordinary/ prominent/ matchless/ foremost 著名的:famous/ illustrious/ celebrated/ notable 聪明的:intelligent/ wise/ ingenious/ sensible/ smart/ clever/ knowledgeable/ capable 大的:immense/ huge/ spacious/ prodigious/ massive/ enormous/ vast/ tremendous/ expansive 小的:slight/ tiny/ microscopic/ small/ diminutive/ minuscule 重要的: important/ significant/ pivotal/ superb/ momentous/ vital/ primary/ essential/ principal/ leading/ major/ dominant/ predominant/ fateful 最好的:optimum/ premium 基本的:underlying/ elementary/ fundamental/ essential/ cardinal 不足的:insufficient/ scanty/ meager/ needy/ poor/ scarce/ devoid/ empty/ lacking 充足的:fraught/ sufficient/ enough/ adequate/ abundant 过多的:excessive/ redundant/ overabundant/ inordinate 特殊的:unique/ matchless/ unrivaled/ extraordinary/ special 奇怪的:odd/ bizarre/ quaint/ weird/ queer 相 似 的 : similar/ approximate/ proximate/ homogeneous/ identical/ equal/ equivalent/ coordinate 无效的:null/ invalid/ void 有效的:valid/ acceptable/ effective/efficient/ competent 高兴的:delightful/ happy/ hilarious/ exultant/ gleeful/ joyous/ exalted/ blessed/ pleasing/ amusing 动词: 提高,加强:improve = enhance= promote = strengthen = optimize 引起:cause = trigger = endanger 解决:solve =resolve =address = tackle =cope with = deal with

拆除:destroy = tear down = knock down = eradicate 培养: develop = cultivate = foster = nurture 激发,鼓励:encourage = motivate = stimulate = spur 认为: think = assert= hold = claim = argue 完成:complete = fulfill = accomplish= achieve 保留:keep = preserve = retain = hold 有害于:destroy = impair = undermine = jeopardize 减轻: ease = alleviate = relieve = lighten 提供: provide/ supply/ furnish/ give/ render/ accommodate 思考: consider/ speculate/ ponder/ think/contemplate 建议: propose/ suggest/ advance/ mention/ recommend/ advise/ offer 吸引: engross/ absorb/ draw/ attract/ intoxicate/ lure/ entice/ tempt 揭示: reveal/ exhibit/ expose/ disclose/ unveil/ show/ transpire/ indicate/ denote 解释: understand/ comprehend/interpret 说明: illuminate/ clarify/ illustrate/ exemplify/ explain/ elaborate 暗示: imply / allude/ insinuate 开始: start/emerge/ launch/ start/ begin/ commence/ initiate 带来、引起: generate/ produce/ give rise to/ engender 停止: stop/ cease/ halt/ terminate/ end/ finish/ conclude 赞同: agree with/ applaud/ approve/ go along with 反对: oppose/ argue against/ combat 名词: 影响:influence= impact 危险:danger = perils =hazard 污染:pollution = contamination4. 人类:human beings= mankind = human race 老人: old people= the old = the elderly = the aged = senior citizens 幸福:happiness = cheerfulness = well-being 老师:teachers = instructors = educators = lecturers=mentor 教育:education = schooling = family parenting = upbringing(家教) 青少年:young people = youngsters = youths = adolescents 优点:advantage = merits = superiority = virtue 责任: responsibility = obligation = duty = liability 能力: ability = capacity = power = skill 职业: job = career = employment = profession 娱乐: enjoyment = pastimes = recreation= entertainment 孩子: children = offspring = descendant= kid 成就、成功: success/ triumph/ victory/ accomplishment/ achievement/ fruition/ consummation (完美)/ attainments 失败: failure/ be defeated 观点: opinion / point of view/ standpoint/ viewpoint / theory 财产: treasure/ profit/ fortune/ moneybag/ wealth/ belongings/ estate/ possessions/ property/ riches/ worth

好处: advantage/ benefit 优点: merit/ strongpoint/ virtue 缺点: bug/ disfigurement/ limitation/ objection/ defect 发展: development/ evolution/ progress/ grow 普及: popularization/ prevalence 出现: emergence 情况: circumstance/ condition 原因: cause/ matter/ reason 影响: infection/ influence/ impact 副词 非常: very/ extraordinarily/ highly / extremely/ largely/ quite/ awfully/ considerably/ greatly 明显的: clearly/ obviously/ distinctly/ evidently/ markedly/ visibly

短语: 充满了:be filled with = be awash with = be inundate with = be saturated with 努力:struggle for = aspire after = strive for = spare no efforts for 从事: embark on = take up = set about = go in for 在当代: in contemporary society = in present-day society= in this day and age 大量的: a host of = a multitude of = a vast number of = a vast amount of 优势:Advantage, merit, virtue, benefit, upside, strength 缺陷:Disadvantage, demerit, drawback, downside, weakness 解决:Solve, deal with, cope with, handle, resolve, address, tackle 损害:Damage, hurt, injure, harm, impair, undermine, jeopardize 给与:Give, offer, render, impart, provide, supply, afford 培养:Develop, cultivate, foster 使迷惑:Puzzle, bewilder, perplex, baffle,confuse 重要的:Key, crucial, critical, important, significant, vital, substantial, indispensable, imperative 认为:Consider, reckon, think, believe, insist, maintain, assert, conclude, deem, hold, argue, be convinced, be firmly convinced, be fully convinced, 保护:Protect, conserve, preserve 确保:Assure, ensure, guarantee, pledge 有害的:Bad, baneful evil, harmful, detrimental 要求:Request, demand, needs, requisition 消除:Eliminate, clear, remove, clear up, take away, smooth away,eradicate 导致:Lead to, bring about, result in, cause, spark off, conduce to, procure, induce, generate 因此:So, therefore, thus, hence, consequently, as a consequence, accordingly, as a result, because of this, as a result of this 增长至:Grow to,rise to,increase to,go up to,climb to,ascend to,jump to,shoot to 降低至:Dip to,fall to,decline to,decrease to,drop to,go down to,reduce to, slump to, descend to,sink to,slide to 保持稳定:Level out,do not change,remain stable,remain still,remain steady,be stable,

maintain the same level,remain unchanged,be still,remain the same level,stay constant,keep at the same level,level off,stabilize,keep its stability,even out 急剧地: Dramatically , drastically , sharply , hugely , enormously , steeply , substantially , considerably,significantly,markedly,surprisingly,strikingly,radically,remarkably,vastly, noticeably 平稳地:Steadily,smoothly,slightly,slowly,marginally,gradually,moderately,mildly 宣称:Allege, assert, declare, claim 发生:Happen, occur, take place 原因:Reason, factor, cause 发展:Development, advance, progress 有益的:Useful, helpful, beneficial, profitable, rewarding, advantageous 影响:Affect, influence, impact, effect, 明显的:Clear, obvious, evident, self-evident, manifest, apparent, crystal-clear,transparent 占、构成:Comprise, take up, account for, constitute, consist of, make up, occupy, hold, compose 与…相比: Compared with,compared to,in comparison with,in comparison to, by comparison with,by comparison to 对比而言:By contrast,in contrast,on the other hand,on the contrary,conversely 展示:Show, reveal, illustrate, demonstrate, depict, present, represent, describe 大约:Approximately,almost,about,around,nearly,roughly 波动:Fluctuate,go ups and downs,display a fluctuation,demonstrate a fluctuation 事实上: Practically, in practice, essentially, in essence, in reality, in effect, in fact, as a matter of fact,it is a fact that 换言之: that is to say, in other words, to put it like this, to put it differently, to put it from another way,to put it from another angle. important =crucial (extremely important),significant(amount or effect large enough to be important) common=universal, ubiquitous(if something is ubiquitous, it seems to be everywhere) abundant=ample(enough and usually extra), plentiful(enough for people's needs and wants) stick=adhere, cling(hold on something tightly) neglect=ignore.(difference: neglect means someone has not paid enough attention to something; ignore means no attention.) near=adjacent(twothings next to each other), adjoin(the same as adjacent) accurate=precise(precise is exact and accurate in all details), exact(correct in every detail) vague=obscure(unknown or known by only a few people) top=peak, summit competitor=rival, opponent(especially in sports and politics) blame=condemn(if you condemn something, you say it is very bad and unacceptable) opinion=perspective, standpoint(means looking at an event or situation in a particular way) fame=prestige(describe those who are admired), reputation build=erect(you can erect something as buildings, FORMAL), establish insult=humiliate(do something or say something which makes people feel ashamed or stupid) complain=grumble (complain something in a bad-tempered way) primary=radical (very important and great in degree), fundamental

relieve=alleviate (alleviate means you make pain or sufferings less intense or severe) force=coerces into(coerce means you make someone do something s/he does not want to),compel enlarge=magnify(magnify means make something larger than it really is) complex= intricate(if something is intricate, it often has many small parts and details) lonely=solitary (if someone is solitary, there is no one near him/her small=minuscule(very small), minute, praise=extol(stronger than praise), compliment(polite and political) hard-working=assiduous(someone who is assiduous works hard or does things very thoroughly difficult=arduous (if something is arduous, it is difficult and tiring, and involves a lot of efforts) poor(soil)=barren, infertile(used to describe the soil is so poor that plants cannot be planted on it) fragile=brittle, vulnerable(someone who is vulnerable is easily hurt emotionally or physically) show=demonstrate (to demonstrate a fact means to make it clear to people.) big=massive(large in size, quantity, or extent), colossal(use this word, you emphasize something’s large), tremendous

fair=impartial(someone who is impartial is able to give a fair opinion or decision on something.) attack=assault (physically attack someone), assail (attack violently dislike=abhor(abhor means you hate something to a extreme extent for moral reasons), loathe(dislike very much)! ruin=devastate (it means damage something very badly, or utterly destroy it.) always=invariably(the same as always, but better than always) forever=perpetual(a perpetual state never changes), immutable(something immutable will never change or be changed) surprise=startle(it means surprise you slightly), astound(surprise you to a large degree),astonish(the same as astound) enthusiasm=zeal (a great enthusiasm), fervency (sincere and enthusiasm)# quiet= tranquil(calm and peaceful), serene(calm and quiet)! expensive=exorbitant(it means too expensive that it should be) luxurious=lavish(impressive and very expensive), sumptuous(grand and very expensive boring=tedious(if you describe something tedious, you mean it is boring and frustrating) respect=esteem(if you esteem someone, you respect and admire him/her. FORMAL) worry=fret(if you fret about something, you worry about it) cold=chilly(unpleasantly cold), icy(extremely cold) hot=boiling(very hot) dangerous=perilous(very dangerous, hazardous(dangerous, especially to people's safety and health) nowadays=currently only=unique(the only one of its kind), distinctive; stop=cease(if something ceases, it stops happening or existing) part=component(the components of something are the parts that it is made of)( h result=consequence(the results or effects of something) obvious=apparent, manifest based on=derived from (can see or notice them very easily)

quite=fairly pathetic=lamentable(very uncomfortable and disappointing) field=domain(a particular field of thought, activities or interest) appear=emerge(come into existence) whole=entire(the whole of something)8 wet=moist(slightly wet), damp(slightly wet), humid(very damp and hot)! wrong=erroneous(incorrect or partly correct) difficult=formidable change=convert(change into another form) typical=quintessential(this word means represent a typical example of something) careful=cautious(very careful in order to avoid danger), prudent(careful andsensible) ability=capacity, capability(the same as ability) strange=eccentric(if someone is eccentric, s/he behaves in a strange way, orhis/her opinion is different from most people) rich=affluent(if you are affluent, you have a lot of money) use= utilize (the same as use) dubious=skeptical(if you are skeptical about something, you have doubts on it.) satisfy=gratify (if you are gratified by something, it gives you pleasure andsatisfaction) short=fleeting, ephemeral(if something is ephemeral, it lasts a short time) scholarship=fellowship angry=enraged(extremely angry) smelly=malodorous(used to describe an unpleasant smell) ugly=hideous(if something is hideous, it is very ugly or unattractive) attractive=appealing(pleasing and attractive), absorbing(something absorbing can attract you a great deal) diverse=miscellaneous(a miscellaneous groups consists of many different kinds of things) disorder=disarray, chaos crazily=frantically(used to describe someone who behaves in a wild and uncontrolled way) rapid=meteoric(ATTENTION: meteoric is only used to describe someone achieves success quickly) ordinary=mundane(very ordinary and not at interesting or unusual) best=optimal(used to describe the best level something can achieve)/ sharp=acute(severe and intense) unbelievable=inconceivable(ifyou deem something inconceivable, you think it very unlike to happen puzzle=perplex(something perplex someone means it confuses and worries him/her because he/she does not understand it) method=avenue(away of getting something done) famous=distinguished(used to describe people who are successful in their career) ancient=archaic(extremely old and extremely old-fashioned) decorate=embellish(embellish means make something look more attractive via decorating it with something else) possible=feasible(if something is feasible, it can be done, made or achieved) so=consequently, accordingly

rare= infrequent (doesn’t happen often) greedy=rapacious(greedy and selfish) 人类 the human race, humanity, man, humankind, Homo sapiens 在当代 in contemporary society, in present-day society, in this day and age 解决(及物动词)tackle, address, resolve, combat 破坏(及物动词)undermine, jeopardize, devastate 影响(名词)impact, repercussions, ramifications, implications 危险(名词)perils, hazards, dangers 明显的(形容词)manifest, apparent, evident, obvious 从事(及物动词)carry out, conduct, perform, go about 积极的,好的 beneficial, advantageous 消极的,坏的 baneful, detrimental 好 处 - 坏 处 benefits, blessings, boons—banes, pros—cons, advantages—disadvantages, merit—demerit 无处不在的 prevalent, pervasive 大量的 a host of, a multitude of, a vast number of (后面跟可数名词复数) a great deal of, a vast amount of(后面跟不可数名词单数) 增进 enhance, improve 贫穷的 impoverished, poor 保护 preserve, protect 富裕的 affluent, wealthy, rich 污染 contamination, pollution 需要(及物动词)require, necessitate, call for 经济的快速发展 the rapid development of economy 人民生活水平的显著提高/稳步增长 the remarkable improvement/ steady growth of people’s living standard 先进的科学技术 advanced science and technology 面临新的机遇和挑战 be faced with new opportunities and challenges 人们普遍认为 It is commonly believed/ recognized that… 社会发展的必然结果 the inevitable result of social development 引起了广泛的公众关注 arouse wide public concern/ draw public attention 不可否认 It is undeniable that…/ There is no denying that… 热烈的讨论/争论 a heated discussion/ debate 有争议性的问题 a controversial issue 完全不同的观点 a totally different argument 一些人…而另外一些人… Some people… while others… 就我而言/就个人而言 As far as I am concerned, / Personally, 就…达到绝对的一致 reach an absolute consensus on… 有充分的理由支持 be supported by sound reasons 双方的论点 argument on both sides 发挥着日益重要的作用 play an increasingly important role in… 对…必不可少 be indispensable to … 正如谚语所说 As the proverb goes:

.…也不例外…be no exception 对…产生有利/不利的影响 exert positive/ negative effects on… 利远远大于弊 the advantages far outweigh the disadvantages. 导致、引起 lead to/ give rise to/ contribute to/ result in 复杂的社会现象 a complicated social phenomenon 责任感/成就感 sense of responsibility/ sense of achievement 竞争与合作精神 sense of competition and cooperation 开阔眼界 widen one’s horizon/ broaden one’s vision 学习知识和技能 acquire knowledge and skills 经济/心理负担 financial burden / psychological burden 考虑到诸多因素 take many factors into account/ consideration 从另一个角度 from another perspective 做出共同努力 make joint efforts 对…有益 be beneficial / conducive to… 为社会做贡献 make contributions to the society 打下坚实的基础 lay a solid foundation for… 综合素质 comprehensive quality 无可非议 blameless / beyond reproach 致力于/投身于 be committed / devoted to… 应当承认 Admittedly 不可推卸的义务 unshakable duty 满足需求 satisfy/ meet the needs of… 可靠的信息源 a reliable source of information 宝贵的自然资源 valuable natural resources 因特网 the Internet (一定要有冠词,字母 I 大写) 方便快捷 convenient and efficient 在人类生活的方方面面 in all aspects of human life 环保(的) environmental protection / environmentally friendly 社会进步的体现 a symbol of society progress 科技的飞速更新 the ever-accelerated updating of science and technology 对这一问题持有不同态度 hold different attitudes towards this issue 支持前/后种观点的人 people / those in favor of the former/ latter opinion 有/提供如下理由/证据 have/ provide the following reasons/ evidence 在一定程度上 to some extent/ degree / in some way 理论和实践相结合 integrate theory with practice …必然趋势 an irresistible trend of… 日益激烈的社会竞争 the increasingly fierce social competition 眼前利益 immediate interest/ short-term interest 长远利益 interest in the long run 有其自身的优缺点… has its merits and demerits/ advantages and disadvantages 对…有害 do harm to / be harmful to/ be detrimental to 交流思想/情感/信息 exchange ideas/ emotions/ information 跟上…的最新发展 keep pace with / catch up with/ keep abreast with the latest development of …

采取有效措施来… take effective measures to do sth. …的健康发展 the healthy development of … 对…观点因人而异 Views on …vary from person to person. 重视 attach great importance to… 社会地位 social status 把时间和精力放在…上 focus time and energy on… 扩大知识面 expand one’s scope of knowledge 身心两方面 both physically and mentally 有直接/间接关系 be directly / indirectly related to… 提出折中提议 set forth a compromise proposal 可以取代 “think”的词 believe, claim, maintain, argue, insist, hold the opinion/ belief that 缓解压力/ 减轻负担 relieve stress/ burden 优先考虑/发展… give (top) priority to sth. 与…比较 compared with…/ in comparison with 相反 in contrast / on the contrary. 代替 replace/ substitute / take the place of 经不起推敲 cannot bear closer analysis / cannot hold water 提供就业机会 offer job opportunities 社会进步的反映 mirror of social progress 毫无疑问 Undoubtedly, / There is no doubt that… 增进相互了解 enhance/ promote mutual understanding 充分利用 make full use of / take advantage of

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