海量文库 文档专家
当前位置:首页 >> 英语学习 >>


A:Homosexuals are born gay, have no choice "Science has taught us, even if history
has not, that gays and lesbians do not choose to be homosexual any more than the rest of us choose to be heterosexual. To a very large extent, these characteristics are immutable, like being left-handed."

B: I will argue that homosexuality is wrong because it is unnatural, meaning that it is contrary to the proper functioning of human sexual organs. Let me begin with an analogy. The purpose of eyes is to see. We say that one has a pair of "good" eyes if they function in accordance with their purpose. By that same token, we say that one has a pair of "bad" eyes if they do not function in accordance with their purpose. Now, since good is something that ought to be pursued (that's the definition of good), the proper thing to do with bad eyes is to turn them into good eyes. In other words, the proper function of eyes gives us insight on how they ought to function. [1] According to this position, known as classic virtue ethics, "[h]uman nature defines what is unique and proper for human flourishing, and a bad person is one who lives contrary to human nature."

A:Eyes that function properly are called "good" because that is simply a synonym for 'properly functioning'. This is of a far different concept of "good" found in discourse about ethics. Special attention must be paid towards Pro's position regarding "human nature" and the proper use of sexual organs, as it is fraught with many difficulties. Sexual organs, in addition to providing the means for reproduction, also have a function of providing pleasure. Establishing which function is primary is difficult, to say the least. It is a very questionable claim that using sexual organs only to provide pleasure is immoral if it is one of its, and especially only, primary functions. Pro must show that the sexual organs exist primarily, or only, to facilitate reproduction.

B:You object to reproduction as being the primary purpose of sex. I see no grounds, however, to believe otherwise. Is it not obvious by the way nature of our anatomy that our sexual organs are for reproduction? Pleasure, it seems, is more of an aid to facilitate reproduction than a purpose in and of itself. This would make sense from an evolutionary perspective, since pleasure would encourage more sex and thus reproduction. The homosexual culture displays "rampant promiscuity" and immorality.Dr. Rick Fitzgibbons of Catholic Medical Association 7/20/05 - "The peer-reviewed literature demonstrates that an inability to maintain committed relationships and rampant promiscuity are the norm in the homosexual lifestyle. To illustrate this, one recent study in Amsterdam, by Xiridou, demonstrated that 86% of the new cases of AIDS came from those in committed relationships, and that those in casual relationships averaged between 16-28 sexual partners per year."

A:There is no evidence that the LGBT community is more promiscuous.There is no evidence that those in the LGBT community are more promiscuous. This is particularly true when one considers the wider community at issue here. We are not simply considering the Gay community, which may be more promiscuous because they have more testosterone. We are also consider lesbians, bisexuals, transgenders, and others within this community. There is no evidence that this community, collectively, is more promiscuous.Homosexuality is a natural phenomenon also found in the animal kingdom"Among the approximately 1500 animal species whose behavior has been extensively studied, homosexual behavior in animals has been described in at least 450 of those species. It runs the gamut, too, ranging from occasional displays of affection to life-long pair bonding including sex and even adopting and raising orphans, going so far as the rejection by force of potential heterosexual partners, even when in heat. The reality is that it is so common that it begs an explanation, and sociobiologists have proposed a wide variety of explanations to account for it. The fact that it is so common also means that it clearly has evolutionary significance, which applies as much to humans as it does to other animal species."

B:A homosexual gene would not make homosexuality moral. "To the extent that biological or social factors may contribute to a person's bent toward homosexual behavior, this does not excuse it. Some people have a strong bent towards stealing or abuse of alcohol, but they still choose to engage or not engage in this behavior the law rightly holds them accountable."Studies citing a homosexual "gene" have been biased and flawed. "homosexuals claim that scientific studies have shown that there is a biological basis for homosexuality. Three main studies are cited by “gay rights” activists in support of their argument2Hamer's X-chromosome research,3LeVay's study of the hypothalamus,4 and Bailey and Pillard's study of identical twins who were homosexuals. In all three cases, the researchers had a vested interest in obtaining a certain outcome because they were homosexuals themselves. More importantly, their studies did not stand up to scientific scrutiny by other researchers. Also, “the media typically do not explain the methodological flaws in these studies, and they typically oversimplify the results”.6 There is no reliable evidence to date that homosexual behavior is determined by a person's genes."

网站首页 | 网站地图
All rights reserved Powered by 酷我资料网 koorio.com
copyright ©right 2014-2019。