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外文文献翻译译稿 1 可用性和期望值
来自 Willliam S.Green, Patrick W.Jordan.产品的愉悦:超越可用性

根据人机工程学会(HFES)的观点,人机工程学着眼于“发现和共享可用 于各种系统和设备设计的、关于人的特点的知识” 。人们通常只是把它作为生物 力学和人体测量所关注的内容,实际上它是从更广泛的意义上的一种对人(产品 用户)的全面和综合的理解。 HFES 从二战中有军方从事的系统分析中发展而来。其中的三种主要研究的 是人体测量、 复杂信息的解释和管理, 以及在部队和装备调配中应用的系统分析。 系统分析在尺度和复杂性方面跨度很大, 大的系统分析有类似于诺曼底登陆准备 的大型系统规划, 小到去理解如何从合理性和规模的角度才最佳的布置和装备人 员。诺曼底登陆是 20 世纪最复杂的事件之一。他要求建立一个在战斗开始之前 还不确定的庞大的人员和物资的合理分配系统。在更小的规模上,装备和军事人 物的布置意味着如何去组织、训练和安排战士,最大限度的发挥他们的长处。士 兵必须迅速地接受训练, 并且能够有效地使用和维护在二战中发展起来的一系列 技术装备。其中,对于飞行员、潜艇人员和坦克驾驶员有神采的限制。复杂的新 装备的开发要求找到最好的税收、密码便医院、破译人员、雷达和声纳操作员、 轰炸机驾驶员和机组人员。 在战后,随着公司及其产品在尺度、领域和复杂性方面的增长,很多系统 分析人员在商用领域找到了发展机会。尽管是战后的发展才导致了 1957 年人机 工程协会(HFES)的建立,但人机研究的起源可以追溯到大批量生产方式的成型 阶段,是当时提高生产效率的要求。随着工作方式从手工生产和农业生产中的转 移,新的工厂工作的概念逐步发展起来。福特的流水生产线和泰勒的效率理论开 始对生产的规划和教育产生影响。即使在家庭生活中,妇女们也开始接受了现代 家庭管理理论,并运用这些理论来组织和规划家庭。在 20 世纪末,一种涵盖面 更广的人机工程正在发展之中。 新的人机工程学是为了适应已经被广泛意识到的 对用户行为模式更深入的需求而诞生的,它开始应用定型研究方法,并探索人的 情感和认知因素。HFES 有很多技术组,涵盖年龄、任职工程和作出决定、人体 差异、 工业人积雪、 医疗系统和康复、 宏观人机工程学、 安全和视觉能力等方面。 但是,目前多数人机工程学专业领域的研究及终于可用性,而不是产品的被渴求 性。 现在已经有很多新的趋势,开始改变公司试图了解他们用户的需求、要求 和愿望的方式。 很多公司使用群体文化学方法作为在产品开发的早期阶段的一种 研究工具。群体文化学的方法出自于文化人类学,是应用在产品研究领域的一种

定型研究的方法。 事实证明这些方法在市场调研的早期阶段和帮助产品开发团队 发展可以进一步将其转化为人们所追求的造型和功能特征的可执行性见解等方 面都十分有效。人机工程学发生变化的第二个原因是对于品牌管理的关注。很多 公司认识到赋予产品一个很强的品牌形象是一种很明显的竞争优势。有 Schmitt 和 Simonson 撰写的《市场推广美学》一书中阐述了视觉形象系统的价值,以及 为什么产品的各个方面清晰的、始终如一的传达给用户。一个成功的品牌有一系 列不同因素构成,能创造出市场中的完整形象,包裹外观和产品功能、名称、广 告、价格和用户感知的价值。通过从更广的角度透视有关人的特性的因素,这种 人及研究的新方向探讨了一个公司的核心价值如何能与其用户的生活方式目标 联系在一起。比如,哈雷·戴维森已经是一个世界上最强有力的品牌形象之一, 他将标识、核心产品(摩托车)和补充性的生活方式产品(服饰和装饰品)与他 们用户的生活方式融合在一起。 甚至连哈雷摩托车所发出的声音也是他们品牌形 象的一部分。人机工程研究发生变化的另一个原因是交互设计发展的结果。交互 设计基于人机交互(Human Computer Interaction,HCI) ,是人机工程研究的一 个新领域,人们认识到有必要跨越软件和硬件的界限创造新的人性化的互动产 品。而且,很明显,完全量化的研究方法不足以解决问题。群体文化学的研究已 经成为人与计算机交互(HCI)研究的一部分,研究人员可以更好的了解人们在 工作和娱乐中如何需要和使用计算机(以及计算机如何结合工作和娱乐) 。 尽管人机工程专业研究人员主要来自于系统工程、生理学、认知心理学的专业人 士和教师构成, 但这个领域的起源和表现形式都很广泛。 在近一个世纪的时间里, 广告、市场、工业设计、视觉传达设计、建筑和娱乐产业都应用不同的人机工程 来帮助他们定义相关的参数,评估产品成功与否。虽然这些领域的研究不可能不 够正规,并且缺乏传播和交流的研究方法的专业杂志和论坛等渠道,但近年来提 取用户行为模式和喜好的方法被认为是对工业和研究领域息息相关, 而且是至关 重要的。 这些领域的关于人机工程的新观点触及界定人的特性和与人互动的意义 问题。2001 年,在新加坡举办的一次人机工程会议上使用“有效的人机因素” 作为主题。会议得到了国际人机工程协会的支持,并且尝试把产品的可用性和被 渴求性(用户的期望值)两方面结合起来。

外文文献翻译原文 1 Usability and Desirability
From: Willliam S.Green, Patrick W.Jordan. Pleasure With Products: Beyond Usability

According to file Human Factors Ergonomics Society (HFES), the discipline of human factors focuses on the “discovery and exchange of knowledge concerning the characteristics of human beings that are applicable to the design of systems and devices of all kinds.” What is often thought of as a focused approach in biomechanics and anthropometrics is actually a much broader understanding of who and what a person is. As you will learn in this section, there are many other members of the product development team, beyond human factors specialists, who are interested in the characteristics of human beings and their relationship to systems and devices. The HFES evolved from the systems analysis conducted by the military during WWII. The three main types of research were anthropometrics,interpreting and managing complex information, and systems analysis in the deployment of troops and equipment. The systems analysis varied in scale and complexity, ranging from the large-scale systems planning used in preparing the invasion of Normandy to the understanding of how to best place and equip personnel from an aptitude and size point of view. The D-Day invasion is one of the most complex events of the 20th century. It required a scale of logistical organization of men and material that was unknown prior to the beginning of the war. At a smaller scale, the range of equipment and military assignments meant understanding how to organize, train, and assign military personnel to make the most of their aptitude and body type. Soldiers had to be trained quickly and effectively to use and maintain the vast array of war technology developed during WWII. There were size limitations for pilots, submariners,and tank drivers. The development of complex new equipment required finding the best personnel with the right training for navigators, cryptographers, code breakers, radar and sonar operators, and bomber pilots and crew. After the war, as post-war companies and the products they produced grew in size, scope, and complexity, many of the systems analysts found opportunities in the commercial sector. While this post-war focus gave rise to the formation of HFES in 1957, the early origins of human factors can be traced back to the development of

mass production and the need to improve efficiency in production. As the nature of work shifted away from craft production and agrarian labor, new concepts for working in factories evolved. The Ford assembly 1ine and Taylor’s theories of efficiency started to have an effect on the planning of the nature of work and education, and even in home economics, where women were instructed to organize and plan their homes around modem principles of domestic management. At the end of the 20th century, there is a much broader concept of human factors emerging.This new version is in response to the recognized need for a deeper insight into customers’ patterns of behavior. It is starting to involve qualitative research methods and to explore emotional as well as cognitive issues in human factors. The HFES has a variety of technical groups, including aging cognitive engineering and decision making, environmental design, individual differences, industrial ergonomics, medical systems and rehab, macroeconomics, safety, and visual performance. Currently, however, most research in the discipline of human factors focuses on usability, not on desire. There are a number of new trends that are beginning to change the way companies attempt to know their customers and their needs, wants, and desires. Many companies are using ethnography as a research tool in early stages of product development. Ethnographic techniques are qualitative processes that take methods from cultural anthropology and apply them to the field of product research. These techniques are proving to be valuable in early phases of marketing and in helping product teams develop the actionable insights they need to translate into the style and features that people are looking for. A second reason this is changing is the result of the new locus on brand management. Many companies realize that giving a product a strong brand identity is a clear competitive advantage. The book Marketing Aesthetics by Schmitt and Simonson describes the value of a visual identity system and how all aspects of a product must communicate clearly and consistently with customers. A successful brand creates a Gestalt image in the market formed from a variety of factors, which include the look and features of the product, the name, the advertising, the price, and the perceived value to the customer, By taking a broader view of what it means to factor the characterization of humans, this new category of human factors explores how a company’s core values call connect with the lifestyle goals of its customers. Harley Davidson has created one of the most powerful brand identifies in the world, which merges the logo, core product (motorcycle), and complementary lifestyle

products (clothing and gear) with the way their customers want to live their lives. Even the noise a Harley makes is part of the brand. Another reason the study of human factors is changing is as a result of the emergence of interaction design. Interaction design is a new area in human factors research and is based on human-computer interaction (HCI). This group recognizes that there is a need to create more humane interactive products that cross hardware and software boundaries. It is also clear that quantitative research is not enough to solve these problems alone. Ethnographic research has become a part of HCI research so that researchers can better understand how people use and need computing in work and play (and how computers are integrating work and play). While the human factors discipline is comprised primarily of professionals and faculty from the fields of systems engineering, physiology, cognitive psychology, and both the origins and current manifestations of the field are far broader. For nearly a century advertising, marketing, industrial design, communication design, architecture, and the entertainment industry have all used a variation of human factors to help to define the parameters and evaluate the success of their products. Although these other fields may have lacked the formal research and forum for dissemination of their methods through academic journals,recently their methods for abstracting behavioral models and likes and dislikes of their customers have found important relevance in industry and research. The newer view of human factors by those in the field reaches out to this view of what it means to characterize and interface with the human. A human factors/ergonomics conference held in Singapore in the Summer of 2001 used the term “Affective Human Factors” as the theme. The conference was endorsed by the International Ergonomics Society and was an attempt to bridge the two schools of thought about usability and desirability.

外文文献翻译译稿2

设计困难与乐趣 设计困难与乐趣
来自 Pierre-Henridejean

简介
人们普遍的倾向认为,困难有碍于乐趣。所有工作需要进行了可用性分析, 市场运作的也验证这个理论。在本文中,我们讨论的一些情况下设计的易用性和 使用乐趣。目的是要表明的其重要性,以使用乐趣作为出发点,而不是仅仅为了 使用,同时最大限度地提高产品的可用性。 基于一些实际的例子,分析问题之间的联系,探究可用性和使用乐趣。事实 上,这种现象存在一定的矛盾,其中一个明确的关系是可用性和使用的困难。

困难和乐趣的关系
朴素和简单的快乐 我们一些通过法国工业部进行了的试验研究表明, 经验往往是在一定程度上 困扰的整个概念的发展。事实上,这误导甚至包括最人们日常让简单法语。方便 舒适的和随和的概念相互关联,并表达“简单德精神” (简单的想法)和“快乐 简单” (简单的快乐)并不是非常讨人喜欢的。最后,聪明的人们找到简单的解 决办法,但条件是他们要客服困难或复杂的问题。这同样是非常宝贵的,一个人 能够选择最有效的产品或最简单而有效的方法。另一方面是质量,谁会在选择产 品的时候忽略这些呢。所有的是从设计出发,而不是用户:这点就忽视可用性。 困难和快乐 比赛往往根据其激烈程度决定其而受到欢迎。 你甚至可以谈论兴奋度来衡量 话题的难度。但是,也有一些细微的差别加以考虑。在电子游戏举例来说,如果 的困难是寻求在游戏本身所提供的服务项目,以某种方式,简化和设施的赞赏中 获得的服务;这就是说,设立游戏在指示开始了游戏技术方面的运作,正在尽可 能容易寻求后,才达到实现这一目的而获得一种快感。以同样的方式,在许多活 动中,增加知识,技能或灵巧是首选的其难度。据分析有两种快乐:学习,只有 结果和在过程中,但更重要的是结果。对于业余厨师,获取诀窍可能是首选的结 果。研究人员的难题,寻找适用的办法是,或所需的设备建立自己的实验,同样 如果不是更多的乐趣,获得的结果,他已经或多或少的预期。 力量和优越性 在接受困难的情况下,努力提供自己或他人一个优势相比。举例来说,如果 它是困难的,了解如何处理一个古老的乐器如六分仪、小提琴,一旦得知这是一 个非常高兴的做法。这个想法的利益所作的努力,感情的定性鉴别,必须结合这

一事实。这种现象已经是不可能观察游戏或活动的业余爱好者,但需要在一个非 常不同的层面在职业生活。垄断诀窍或能力构成了权力,造成困难的许多人。在 另一个层面,但同样,丰富的文化经验可以作为一个乐趣。感情的能力是多方面 的。在可用性研究我们注意到两个态度这一事实。拒绝或不信任有关系的,过于 简单或过于自动,导致人们害怕失去他们的能力。其直接后果是在一个国家非常 简化的工作任何人可以做的。事实上,这并非是一个泰勒的基本思路。 压缩困难 在某些情况下,简单可以创建恐惧。这种情况时,例如行动涉及高风险,也 没有时间限制。信息安全,例如适用于这种态度。在这里阐述的一个程序是首选 的方法过于简单。不可理解的诊断,而是一个长期的基础上的解释,成为放心就 麻烦担心。对于一些人是医学太愉快会导致怀疑上升到其效率。认真和严谨方面 成为一个因素的信誉,因此非常高兴。在布局招待会银行的代理人是非常敏感的 话题,将给予客户一个严重的印象,它甚至可能会走得那样远,造成的印象是紧 缩。有了这样的装饰,银行家将与更多的快乐感觉更可信的有关他的客户更加放 心,从而使他工作更容易。 我们注意认识到可用性的重要性,如果造成社会问题,如失业率增加目前的 生态问题表现出的倾向这个方向,甚至可能导致积极的,图清洗和打捞废品本身 并不愉快的活动,即使感觉有尊重自然和生态方面的问题,既是一个基本的趋势 和解决一个的方案,赚钱对股市可能会阻碍他的不道德方面的资金使用情况,从 而获得这种思维方式,在美国建立道德基金使投资者放心,他的储蓄不放置在支 持的项目,他认为是C.While 非法获得资本,他将感到很高兴在促进股市,支 持可持续发展的不同宗教法令规定,禁止某些乐趣一样贪婪和欲望,而技术进步 摧毁一些灾难性的后果, 很高兴这些, 低热量的健康食品有助于赞赏良好的食物, 同时又不造成的健康问题。 有些人觉得一定有一定困难的乐趣,比通过惩罚的手段更普遍。相当奠定意 义的药物导致高兴而可能被认为是效率低下。

处理乐趣和产品设计的困难
我们已经看到,乐趣在使用并不总是与可用性联系在一起.那是在困难的情 况下使用可提高趣味性的互动,例如通过提高用户的自尊,显然,文化层面应该 在这里表达的,以及在其他部分产品( Dejean 德索萨和 1999 年)文化方面遇 到困难和乐趣不同的探索应该是取得了文化价值的一定的困难;文化态度与困难 应加以探讨。 一种可能的困境设计者是多少产品的运作模式应显示给用户。 “黑 与 匣子”的产品可能是非常简单的,因为用户并不需要弄懂如何在实际工作,怎样 解决产品出现问题,那么用户可能根本不知道如何正确的,这是他或她将不会了 解这一过程背后的方式,该产品适用于其他手握玻璃瓶装产品。凡用户更多地参

与这一进程可能需要更多的努力去学习。 一旦解决了这些用户将能够理解运作的 产品和可以拿出一些创新性的解决办法应该发生的问题,他们从某种意义上说, 已授权通过后作出的额外努力学习如何使用产品放在首位。 最后,引入乐趣的可用性是至关重要的。这是一个因素,延长了纪律这是一 个长期而痛苦和面向有益返回产品人体工程学设计的人体工程学的工作条件建 立一个参考乐趣, 因此更有必要模型和参数可能会允许我们来处理这一概念在科 学的方法,从而在非常接近的问题,其复杂性增加了其学习的乐趣!

外文文献翻译原稿2

Difficulties and Pleasure? ?
From:PIERRE-HENRIDEJEAN

INTRODUCTION There is a general tendency to believe that difficulties prevent pleasure. For all work carried out on usability, marketing pleads implicitly for this thesis, without, however, defending it. In this paper we shall discuss a number of contexts of use in which usability and pleasure are in opposition to each other. The aim is to show the importance of pleasure-based as opposed to usability-based approaches to product design, in order to maximize the quality of user experience. The starting point is based on some practical examples, where context or circumstances throw into question the link between usability and pleasure in use. Indeed, cases will be highlighted in which there is a clear link between usability and difficulty in use. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIFFICULTIES AND PLEASURE Simplicity and simple pleasure… Some of our research, carried out for French Ministry of Industry, has shown that there is often a degree of stigma attached to the whole concept of simplicity. Indeed, this stigmatization of simplicity is even inherent in the French language. The meaning of the words ‘easy-comfortable’ and ‘easy-going’ are associated with the concept ‘without merit’, and the expressions ‘simple dispirit’ (simple minded) and ‘plaisir facile’ (simple pleasure) are not very flattering for the people they refer to. Finally, and more concretely, there is genius in the ability to find simple solutions, on the condition that they do not devalue difficult or complex problems. It is likewise very valuable that a person is able to select either the most efficient product or the most simple and efficient method. On the other hand, the quality of the person who chooses this product or method will be disregarded. All the honour goes to the designer and not to the user: the first ambiguity of usability. Difficulty and pleasure Games are often appreciated according to their degree of difficulty. You might even talk about an increasing pleasure parallel to the level of difficulty. There are , however, some nuances to be taken into consideration. In the case of electronic games

for instance, if the difficulty is sought after in the game itself-the service provided by the project in some way-simplicity and facility are appreciated in the access to the service; that is to say, the setting up of the game. Whereas in the instructions for starting up the game-the technical side of the operation-being as easy as possible is sought after. The interfaces, the directions for use, are developed for this purpose. In the same way, in many activities, the increase in knowledge, skills or dexterity is preferred for the level of difficulty their acquisition represents. By analysis there are tow kinds of pleasure: learning where only the result counts and acquisition where the process is more important than the result. For the amateur cook, acquiring the knack might be preferred to the result. For the researcher the puzzle that the search for the applicable approach represents, or the equipment needed for setting up his experiments, is equally if not more pleasurable that obtaining the result that he had already more or less anticipated. Power and superiority Difficulty is accepted in the case where the effort provides a power or a superiority compared to oneself or others. For instance if it is difficult to learn how to handle an ancient instrument like a sextant, a violin, … once learnt it is a great pleasure to practice. The idea of the benefit of the effort made, the feeling of qualitative differentiation, must be linked to this fact. The phenomena is already possible to observe in games or activities for amateurs, but takes on a very different dimension in professional life. The monopoly on know-how or ability constitutes a power that creates difficulties for many people. On another level but in the same vein, cultural enrichment can be experienced as being a pleasure. The feeling of competence is valorizing. In studies of usability we have noted two attitudes this fact. The refusal or distrust in relation to systems which are too simple or too automatic, cause people to be afraid of losing their competence. The immediate consequence in the context of a country very simplified kind of job might be done by anyone. Indeed, was this not one of Taylor’s fundamental thoughts? Reassuring difficulties In certain circumstances, simplicity can create fear. This is the case when for instance actions involve high stakes and there is no time limit. The security of information, for example, applies to this attitude. Here an elaborated procedure is

preferred to an approach which is too simple. A comprehensible diagnosis, but one based on long explanations, becomes reassuring in relation to a troublesome worry. For some people medicine which is too pleasant will cause doubts to rise as to its efficiency. The serious and rigorous aspect becomes a factor of credibility and hence of pleasure. In the layout of bank receptions the agents are very sensitive to aesthetics that will give the customers a serious impression; it might even go as far as causing an impression of austerity. With such a decoration, the banker will work with greater pleasure feeling more credible in relation to his/her customers thus more at ease, which will in turn make his/her, work easier. Fatigue and pleasure Tired but happy! This is the expression corresponding to a satisfaction which has demanded quite deal of physical or intellectual effort. Here as well, personal investment and pleasure are harmoniously united. To prevent pleasure being replaced by stress, it is, however, most important that the demands on availability of time and mind are strong. The feeling of satisfaction in relation to the result obtained might be related to the effort made to obtain this result. For many people sports give satisfaction by the physical effort made to obtain this result. For many people sports give satisfaction by the physical effort more than the level of performance in itself, the important aspect is to participate. Marathons which have increased in number in cities all over the world is a good example of this. Ethics and pleasure We have placed religious as well as non-religious considerations in this category, these concern systems of value accepted by the social groups which have multiplied across the modern world. We have observed that usability was badly regarded if it caused social problems such as increasing unemployment The current ecological problems are showing tendencies in this direction and can even lead to active intervention Cleaning and the salvage of waste products are not in themselves pleasurable activities even though the feeling of having respected nature can exist.Progress in ecological problems in ethical terms is both a basic tendency and an element of solution The pleasure of earning money on the stock market might he thwarted by the immoral aspect of the utilization of the funds thus gained This way of thinking has

lead to the creation of ethical funds in the USA.Here the investor is assured that his savings are not placed in the support of projects that in his view are immoral.On the contrary.While gaining capital he will feel a pleasure in contributing to stocks that support sustainable development Different religions have decreed rules forbidding certain pleasures like greed and lust,whereas technological progress has destroyed some of the disastrous consequences of these pleasure. The specialized‘low-calorie/ health food.Products contribute to the appreciation of good food without creating health problems. Some people feel a certain pleasure in the punishments afflicted to them More commonly.and In a rather lay sense a medication that leads to pleasure could be suspected of being inefficient. 11.3 MANAGING PLEASURE AND DIFFICULTY IN PRODUCT DESIGN We have seen that pleasure in use is not always associated with usability in deed.There are occasions where difficulty in use can increase the pleasurebility of interaction for example by raising the users’ sense of self-esteem It is evident that a cultural dimension ought to be expressed here, as well as in other components of the product (De Souza and Dejean 1999)Cultures face difficulties and pleasure differently An exploration ought to be made of the cultural valuation of certain difficulties;the difficulties; cultural attitudes in relation to difficulties should be explored. A possible dilemma for the designer is deciding how much of the product's mode of functioning should be revealed to the user. With ‘black box’ products operation may be very simple because the user is not required to understand anything of how the product actually works However.if something goes wrong, then the user may have no idea how to correct this as he or she will not understand the process behind the way in which the product works On the other hand ‘glass box ‘products.Where the user is more involved in the process may require more effort to learn. Once mastered.however.The user will be able to understand the workings of the product and may be able to come up with some innovative solutions should a problem occur They have.in a sense, been empowered through having to make the extra effort to learn how to use the product In the first place. In conclusion, introduction of pleasure in the criteria of usability is essential. the It is an element of renewal for a discipline which was for a long while oriented towards suffering and a beneficial return of product ergonomics to the ergonomics of working conditions The creation of a reference for pleasure is thus all the more

necessary Models and parameters might then allow us to approach this notion in a scientific way, thus approaching the very question whose complexity adds to the pleasure of its study!


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