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teacher's intervention in english autonomous learning 论文


内江师范学院本科毕业论文(设计) (小五宋体,顶左侧)

学院:外国语学院 班级:09 级 1 班 姓名:邱 瑾 学号:20090541212 Teacher’s Intervention in English Autonomous Learning Thesis statement: Teacher plays important roles in English autonomous learning,
whose intervention not only help students, learn better, but also learn more.

Abstract Introduction I. The definition of English autonomous learning II. The theoretical basis of teacher’s intervention III. The teacher’s role in autonomous learning
A. The facilitator in learner’s autonomy B. The cooperator in learner’s learning C. The assessor in the process of learning D. The resource-provider in student’s autonomous learning

IV. How to intervene in learner’s autonomy
A. Stimulate student’s awareness of autonomous learning B. Help students to set up their goals C. Help students choose appropriate learning strategy D. Guide students to self-examine and self-assess E. Establish new teaching pattern to cultivate students’ ability to autonomous learning

Conclusion Notes Bibliography Acknowledgements
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内江师范学院本科毕业论文(设计) (小五宋体,顶左侧)

Teacher’s Intervention in English Autonomous Learning
Introduction
In recent years, cultivating self-learning ability of students has become one of the goals of English teaching reform. With the development of teaching reform and the strength of the concept of self-learning, the teacher’s role, as a main speaker and introductor, will have a huge impact, but which does not mean the weakening of the status and function of teachers. On the contrary, self-learning model will pose great challenge to teachers, prompting them to re-examine their role in the process of English teaching and reposition their role, so that they can effectively intervene in the students' own learning process, and help students grow into more active learners in autonomous learning.

I. The definition of English autonomous learning
Learner autonomy refers to the learners' ability and willingness to make a choice independently. (LittlewoodW. Autonomy: an anatomy and a framework [J]. System, 1996. 24(4): 427-435) The main theoretical basic of autonomous learning is the constructivist theory which is put forward by cognitive psychology school. The core of the theory is based on student-centered, emphasizing students’ active exploration, discovery to knowledge, and students’ active construction to the meaning of knowledge which they have learned and promoting their experiential learning. In the learning process exists the following four stages: environmental stimulation, active discovery, the interaction of prior knowledge, reconstruction of the knowledge structure. knowledge is formed in certain scenarios and socio-cultural background, which is gained by learners themselves who have the help of others in the process of learning knowledge, use the necessary learning materials through the meaning construction way. During the process of students; autonomous learning, we should emphasize that students are the main body of information processing, the active construction of meaning, and we also shouldn’t ignore teacher’s guide, and require that teachers turn their role of imparting and instilling information into helper and facilitator of students’

constructing meaning(何克抗. 建构主义——革新传统教学的理论基础[J]. 教育技术研究, 1997(1): 35-43).

II. The theoretical basis of teacher’s intervention
Holec defined autonomous learning as "the ability to answer for their own study”, (Holec H. Autonomy and Foreign language Learning [M]. Oxford pergam on press, 1981)and this ability is not innate, which needs to base on the experience of receiving education and continue intervening in education. Constructivist also thinks that knowledge is
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内江师范学院本科毕业论文(设计) (小五宋体,顶左侧)

the learner who in a certain social context and background have the help of others gain by studying some relevant material in a way of meaning construction. Teacher is the mediator of the entire teaching process and one of the "tools”, which students achieve the stated learning objectives. Therefore, the relationship of the intermediary role of teachers can help students learn autonomously and control their own learning, it also can help them learn to think independently and solve problems independently. Undoubtedly, the function and the role of teachers in students' autonomous learning process are extremely important.

III. The teacher’s role in autonomous learning
In order to foster students' ability to autonomous learning in the teaching of English, teachers should promptly review and position their own role, meanwhile, teacher also need to change the teaching philosophy into students’ learning consultant and managers of curriculum activity. On the one hand, teacher should let the students free to solve their problems by themselves and provide them with learning resources in an appropriate moment, on the other hand, teacher should help students to establish the concept of independent learning and learning methods so as to let students to learn independently and answer for their learning. In the independent learning process, teachers should play the following roles: facilitator in learner autonomy, cooperator in learners’ learning, the assessor in the process of learning, resource-provider in students’ learning. A. The facilitator in learner’s autonomy The so-called facilitator, it means that teacher plays a specific role to facilitate students' learning behavior which occurs or is likely to occur. Specifically, in the learner’s learning process, teachers should act as two complementary roles: one is for psycho - social support, the other is for technical support. (华维芬.试论外语教师在自主学习模式中的定位[J].外

语研究, 2001(3): 76-79) If we put it into English self-learning practice, in the psycho - social support, we should ask teachers to strive to cultivate the students' awareness and interest of self-study, to provide students with opportunities of independent learning and manual communication. And in the technical support, teacher should help students determine the learning objectives, develop a learning plan, select appropriate learning method and help students get networks and other information resources. At last, teacher should let students form into learning methods and style that is fit for their characteristic of personality. B. The cooperator in learner’s learning
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内江师范学院本科毕业论文(设计) (小五宋体,顶左侧)

Autonomous learning is different from the self-study, students in the independent learning process not only require the cooperation between students, also need the cooperation between teachers and students. The linguist Dam has ever pointed out that the "In the learner-centered teaching, the focus should be placed on 'learning' rather than 'teaching'". (Dam. Learner autonomy: from theory to practice [M]. pubin authentic, 1995: 1-7) And teachers should participate in the learning process of learners to support the initiative of the learner and investigate the progress of their learning and help them solve the various problems that may arise in the learning process. At the same time, if students have some problems and questions in the process of learning, teacher should answer students question and give timely construction of the feedback. In order to consolidate their language point, teachers should communicate with students regularly, put forward with questions, arrange their homework, and make a test, which must be based on students’ ability. In short, teachers should monitor all aspects of the self-learning and provide support and assistance in a timely manner. C. The assessor in the process of learning The assessment is an important means to test the validity of learning, which contribute to supervise learner’s learning and understand whether they have reached their learning objectives or whether their learning have been in accordance with the scheduled process. The purpose of the assessment is to provide information that students make progress at some stage after the period of study and to enable students to see their real achievements or gaps, and thus they can continuously adjust their own learning progress, objectives and plans and can be more active in learning. The learner must appraise their own learning outcomes objectively and fairly, and enhance the rational and scientific of education and self-examine, which need to compare with the students around you. but more teachers should stand in the general requirements of height of language learning to use a wide range diversity of the evaluation system, to comprehensively evaluate the learning process and to offer feedback in a timely manner for their autonomous learning. Self- examine can promote learner to give out objective, real self-assessment in time and combine self-monitoring and self-assessment with external testing and evaluation in comparison with other learners. We should regard comprehensive, integrated, and the final learning objectives as a standard to evaluate and design the next phase of self-learning in comprehensive, objective and scientific manner. D. The resource-provider in student’s autonomous learning
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内江师范学院本科毕业论文(设计) (小五宋体,顶左侧)

Although the jug-and mug method (the teacher, a full jug, pours knowledge into the students, empty mugs) has been widely criticized, the teacher is still considered a good and convenient resource for the students. (王蔷. A Course in English Language Teaching. 北京: 高等教育出版社, 2006(2):70-72) In this sense, the teacher’s role is the same as the role of instruction material. However, when students are supposed to work on their own, the teacher should withhold his readiness to provide students with some useful resources.

IV. How to intervene in learner’s autonomy
Teacher plays an irreplaceable important role in the students' English self-learning. Therefore, as a teacher, how should she intervene in students’ autonomous learning? So that teacher can not only play a leading role, but also to promote students' ability to learning by themselves. A. Stimulate student’s awareness of autonomous learning Independent learning is the objective of school education, and society needs people to continue learning and accept life-long education and continuous self-improvement in order to adapt to the requirements of social development. However, if students want to involve in the process of autonomous learning and gradually increase the efficiency of the independent study, they still need teachers to guide purposely and teach them those learning methods and skills for their further study to promote their self-awareness into strong learning desire. However, the learner's active learning motivation comes mainly from the consciousness of their learning. If we want to stimulate and strengthen the sense of autonomy, we can not do without the stimulus of external requirements. Only if teachers give timely guidance to help them overcome the blindness and randomness, we can turn learners unconscious into conscious sense of learning and can internalize the external requirement of “force to learn” into internal demand of “willing to learn” when we correct the wrong sense of learning. B. Help students set up their goals Autonomous learning process of the primary task is to determine the learning objectives. In the English independent study, students must first determine their own long-term goals. The specific approach is to have the help of teachers to understand the outline or syllabus on the students' foreign language skills and develop a series of plans to achieve their own goals. After the long-term goal has been designed, teachers should help students to develop short-term goals based on differences in individual students. When students’ short-term goal fails, teachers should guide students to analyze: why failed? Is goal-setting reasonable? Compared to the ability of students, the goals set too high or too low? This analysis helps to
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内江师范学院本科毕业论文(设计) (小五宋体,顶左侧)

enhance students 'confidence, but also help the students revised their goals, at the same time it also can stimulate self-learning awareness of students. C. Help students choose appropriate learning strategy Learning needs appropriate learning strategies, English autonomous learning is no exception. Due to the difference of personality, hobbies, experiences, methods, environmental, cultural, and the style of cognitive, learner will form into their relatively stable learning methods and styles. However the teacher's task is to guide students to use appropriate learning methods and strategies. In this process, teachers should not only consider the commonality of the students but also the individual differences of students. For students’ commonality, teachers can teach students to analyze the general ideas of problems in order to achieve learning skills and methods necessary for the purpose, and for the individual differences of students, teacher should encourage students to constantly improve their own learning methods according to their own needs and characteristics, and encourage students to exchange ideas and learn from each other. Teachers can provide suitable learning materials according to the characteristics of students for the students to choose, such as some good audio-visual materials, English newspapers and magazines, and English website which are related to learner autonomy, and guide them to select appropriate learning materials based on students' English basis. D. Guide students to self-examine and self-assess Autonomous learning requires learners to be able to monitor the learning process. The so-called self-monitoring, which refers to the plan of learners on independent learning activities, evaluation, feedback and regulation of activities, included planning and preparation before learning, control and regulation during the learning, reflection and introspection after the studying. At the same time, the reflection after a phase of learning is the most important thing, because the learner can understand their own learning process and their own learning progress clearly. They can base on feelings and experiences in the learning process to test their learning and the accuracy are better than someone else's evaluation. We can understand our learning through reflection, introspection, and find out learning problems in learning process, so that we can develop the next stage of learning objectives and plans better. Teachers should actively encourage students to evaluate their own learning, meanwhile teachers also should stand in the height of the overall requirements in the language learning to comprehensively evaluate their learning process and effects which can reduce the subjectivity of the learner self-evaluation and help them further evaluate themselves objectively and truly.
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内江师范学院本科毕业论文(设计) (小五宋体,顶左侧)

E. Establish new teaching pattern to cultivate students’ ability to autonomous learning In English teaching, teacher should update their concept of teaching and change their traditional role as soon as possible to make students show their initiative of independent learning, which can stimulate through the establishment of a new mode of teaching and cultivating students 'interest in English and students' participation consciousness and the ability to self- learning, and attract the attention of students in the class, teachers should, as soon as possible, use interesting and lively teaching methods to stimulate students interest in learning. In the curriculum teaching activity, teacher can use situational teaching to promote student interaction and independent learning. Situational teaching makes language intuitive and closer to life, at the same time, the relaxed atmosphere for learning is more susceptible to the students. Teachers can design teaching scenarios based on different curricula and encourage students to actively participate in classroom communicative activities such as games, debates, class lectures, group discussions and on behalf of speeches, short plays, performances, etc., so that students could maintain interest in the whole learning process . The teachers also should agree on students, encourage students to complement each other and mutual correction, and create a relaxed learning atmosphere, which stimulate the enthusiasm and desire of the students' self-learning and enable students to become masters of their own learning.

Conclusion
To sum up, the English autonomous learning is a process that students have the help of teacher to build knowledge structure, cultivate ability to self-learning and experience the emotion in English learning. Therefore, when we emphasize on learners ' independent learning and autonomy, we can not ignore the role of teachers who involve in students' English study. Only two-way interaction between teachers and students, English language teaching reform just can achieve a virtuous cycle of development of education. Visibility, the involvement of teachers in students' autonomous learning process, not only can help students develop their autonomy to learn, and adapt them to the social advancement of technology, but also have an impact on the life-long learning for students. Therefore, the role of teachers in students' autonomous learning can not be ignored in the English teaching.

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